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BIO 101 2-9-16

by: Rachel Tersigni

BIO 101 2-9-16 BIO101N

Rachel Tersigni
GPA 3.57

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About this Document

Beginning of ch.2 notes and in class discussion notes.
Dr. Bailey
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Tersigni on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO101N at Central Michigan University taught by Dr. Bailey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Biology in Science at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
February 9, 2016  Organization of biological world  Biosphere  Ecosystem  Community  Population  Individual organisms  Organisms  Tissues  Cells  Organelles  Molecules  Atoms As this list goes down we know more about it, as the list goes up it increases in complexity  Everything is made of atoms  An element is a substance that cannot be broken down chemically into any other substances  An atom is a bit of matter that cannot be subdivided any further without losing its essential properties The periodic table is split up by the atomic number and the atomic weight. Atoms found in the natural world range is very large to very small.  Atomic structure  Nucleus  Protons(+ charge)  Neutrons(no charge)  Both P&N have mass  Make up the atomic weight of the atom  Electron cloud  Electrons(- charge) Atoms are characterized by the atomic number that is the number of protons The atomic weight is both the neutrons and protons in the atom The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons Carbon atom is very abundant in living systems-Atomic # is 6, atomic weight is 12--6 protons, 6 neutrons--6 electrons The inner shell of electron structure can only hold 2 The next three levels can hold up to 8 electrons Everything that goes on in living organisms is nothing more than a series of chemical reactions Atomic weight of helium 4--2 protons, 2 neutrons Gas or farting is made up of Methane= 1 carbon atom and 4 hydrogen atoms There are a lot of similarities in elements in humans and plants The Big 4 elements  Oxygen  Carbon  Hydrogen  Nitrogen When looking at nutrition facts you mainly look carb rate, fat rate, protein rate, etc Proteins are made up of amino acids Hydrogen is in almost everything that we eat Trees have large amounts of proteins in them Humans have muscle tissue predominately made of proteins There are million upon millions of cells in your body and they all contain protein Chemical reactions in cells Enzymes=proteins ATOMS  Common atoms in biological systems  Hydrogen  Oxygen  Carbon  Nitrogen  Phosphorus  Sulpher- smells bad CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS Chemical reaction (Rx) Result of some form of interaction of electrons in outer shell of atoms or molecules When chemical bonds are broken they release energy Formation of bonds An atom's electrons determine how and whether the atom will bond with other atoms First Shell-2 electrons Second Shell-up to 8 electron Third Shel-up to 8 electrons Fourth Shell-up to 8 Given the following atoms, along with their atomic number and atomic weight, draw the pattern of protons, neutron, and electrons for each Hydrogen(1/1) Carbon(6/12) Nitrogen(7/14) Oxygen(8/16) Sodium(11/23)-11 protons, 11 neutrons-- 2, 8, 1 Chlorine(17/35)-17 protons, 17 neutrons, 17 electrons--2,8,7 Sodium + Chlorine=table salt--formed through an ionic bond that forms a molecule of a crystal nature Hydrogen and oxygen formed together to make a water molecule Water is extremely important to living things Water is where the fast majority of chemical reactions occur Your body is made of about 85-90+ %  Sweating a lot helps lose more weight but is temporary 


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