Blood PowerPoint Weekly Notes
Blood PowerPoint Weekly Notes Biol 2230-001
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Hills on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2230-001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John Cummings in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Clemson University Spring 2016 Blood PowerPoint 2216 Notes Slide 1 Blood Blood is a type of connective tissue and it is the only liquid tissue in the body Cells are embedded in the background matrix liquid portion of the blood Blood is contained within blood vessels The body has about 5 L Gallon and half of blood 8 ofbody weight is made up of blood Blood temperature About 100 degrees F which is above normal body temperature 9 Allows heat exchange in maintenance of body temperature Ex Blood can be shunted from the surface to the core to increase temperature Blood pH 735745 Slide 2 Functions of the blood Delivers oxygen as well as nutrients Ex Glucose and oxygen are the 2 major components for cellular respiration Transports metabolic wastes Ex In cellular respiration active cells produce waste like carbon dioxide that is sent back into the blood for disposal Ex Break down of proteins through deamination releases NH3 as a waste product that is transported to the kidneys to be eliminated through urine Transports hormones Chemical messengers that can affect cells with the specific cell receptor Maintains body temperature The pH of blood is confined to a narrow range that is slightly on the basic side of neutral 735745 has buffers to help regulate pH Because blood is a liquid tissue it is responsible for maintaining uid volume Blood has to go through interstitial cells in order to enter cells and also comes back out of cells through the interstitial space to enter back into the blood stream Many factors affect this Components of the blood prevent blood loss Clotting proteins factors 9 Ex Damage occurs to a blood vessel and the blood components help seal off the blood vessel in order to not lose blood Functions in preventing infection as a part of the immune system 9 Has immune cells antibodies etc Slide 3 Components Formed Elements Erythrocytes The liquid portion of the blood contains the formed elements These include cells cell residue etc Erythrocytes Red blood cells that function in carrying respiratory gases Mainly oxygen Red blood cells can carry carbon dioxide too but this is not the primary method of its transport in the body 45 of the total blood volume is made up of red blood cells Red blood cells are not really living cells All are produced in the bone marrow and once the living cells reach a point where they leave the bone marrow they no longer perform mitosis and divide and have lost the nucleus and organelles therefore these are considered to be dying cells Some red blood cells last for decades and others for a few minutes Slide 4 Components Formed Elements Leukocytes Leukocytes are true living cells with nuclei organelles and the ability to reproduce Assist in immunity along with the immune system Less than 1 of the total blood volume is made up of white blood cells Each type of leukocyte cell has as separate function but together they all function for immunity Slide 5 Components Formed Elements Platelets Platelets are fragments of other cells AKA thrombocytes 9 Includes pieces of plasma membranes and cytoplasm that have been pinched off of other cells Within platelets there are vesicles that contain proteins that are involved in blood clotting Leukocytes and platelets combined make up less than 1 of the total blood volume Slide 6 Components Plasma Liquid portion of the blood Plasma makes up 55 of the blood volume Hematocrit Diagnostic Test Used to observe the different proportions of the components Erythrocytes leukocytes platelets and plasma in the blood Have a capillary tube that draws blood up from a pricked finger that is put into clay has one end plugged and centrifuged so the blood separates into its different components Results Slightly less than half red blood cells slightly more than half plasma and the green color In picture white blood cells and platelets combined Used to determine anemia sufficiency of blood cells and excess blood cells Slide 7 Table 171 Composition of Plasma The plasma is 90 water Contains other substances in solution Many are proteins nonproteins Albumin Most common in blood Produced by the liver Globulins Immune proteins Ex Gamma globulins Enzymes AA Based Hormones Nonproteins Nitrogenous waste Nutrients such as glucose others that are transported throughout the body Electrolytes Charged ions such as calcium and sodium Respiratory gases Some are transported through red blood cells and others through the plasma liquid portion of blood Slide 8 Erythrocytes Formed element Red blood cells are small biconcave cell remnants that do not have a nucleus or organelles The purpose for the loss of the nucleus and organelles is so that a pigment protein called hemoglobin could be fit inside the structure in order to be able to carry oxygen Red blood cells also contain antioxidant enzymes that eliminate free radicals Excess hydrogen ions that have escaped and become toxic to the body On average there are about 5 million red blood cellsmL of blood between men and women Men have a higher amount of red blood cells though 5158 million and females have 4352 million Slide 9 Hemoglobin Hemoglobin is a combination of globin Protein and heme pigment Heme pigment makes our blood red With or without oxygen attached to the heme Globin protein bound to heme pigment hemoglobin Slide 10 Globin Globin is complex protein with 4 subunits 4 polypeptide chains linked together 9 Means this has quaternary structure because there is more than onesubun Of the 4 subunits there are 2 alpha and 2 beta that are all linked together Each of the 4 globin subunits attaches to a heme Slide 11 Heme Heme pigment contains iron that is attracted to oxygen oxygen binding iron Slide 12 Hemoglobulin The center core of each subunit is the heme that binds to one molecule of oxygen so that it carries a total of 4 molecules of oxygen There are 250 million hemoglobulin molecules in an individual red blood cell so that each one carries 1 billion oxygen molecules Oxygen plays an important role with the oxidation of glucose and obtaining energy All active cells require a lot of energy so the 5 million red blood cells mL of blood is really helping out Slide 13 Oxi vs Deoxyhemoglobulin Oxygen dissociation curve Oxihemoglobin Deep scarlet red When oxygen is bound to hemoglobin Deoxyhemoglobin Purplishred When there is no oxygen bound to hemoglobulin Hemoglobin is a carrier molecule that picks up oxygen where levels are high in the lungs and releases it in places where oxygen is low in active cells Have an Sshaped curve NOT linear 9 Tells us that deoxyhemoglobulin starts to pick up oxygen and this changes the affinity for oxygen Means that once hemoglobulin has the first oxygen bound it is able to bind to more oxygen more quickly and the molecule does not like to give the oxygen up Overall deoxyhemoglobulin progresses to oxyhemoglobulin based on concentration gradients and affinity for oxygen Slide 14 Carbaminohemoglobulin Carbaminohemoglobulin means that the globulin part is bound to carbon dioxide Hemoglobulin is able to transport only about 20 of carbon dioxide as a result The rest is carried in the plasma Plasma is made up of 90 water so when carbon dioxide enters the water it s transfored into carbonic acid 9 dissociates to form bicarbonate HCOg39 which is the form in which carbon dioxide is transported in throughout the body Slide 15 Erythropoiesis Hematopoiesis Means production of blood cellsquot Erythropoiesis Production of red blood cells and leucopoiesis Production of white blood cells are types type of hematopoiesis An ounce of blood is produced a day and will contain 100 billion cells The types of blood cells produced depends on the needs of the body Ex When exercising more oxygen is needed so red blood cells are produced more Ex Stress causes body to catch a cold so more white blood cells are needed All hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow In the bone marrow there is a hemocytoblast Hematopoietic stem cell Pluri potent cell that can give rise to a number of different cells and not just one type Red or white blood cells Erythropoiesis Steps Process takes 35 days to complete Hemocytoblast produces a myeloid stem cell which is also a pluri potent cell Can produce red or white blood cells Myeloid stem cell 9 proerythroblast 9 early erythroblast 9 late erythroblast 9 normoblast Normoblast loses its nucleus and organelles and it accumulates hemoglobin molecules and becomes a reticulocyte The reticulocyte leaves the bone marrow and matures in the blood stream NOT the bone marrow to become a fully functional erythrocyte Slide 16 Regulation of Erythropoiesis Erythropoietin Produced in the kidney Kidneys asses the level of oxygen in the blood When it is detected that there is a need for more oxygen erythropoietin is released and signals the bone marrow to make more red blood cells Red blood cell formation is based on oxygen concentration and NOT the number of red blood cells Testosterone Stimulates the kidneys to release erythropoietin Males have higher levels of testosterone than females 9 Why males have more red blood cells 9 More iron in the body which has shown a link to heart disease There is evidence that males donating blood 4 times per year helps reduce risk of heart disease Applies for females after menopause as well before blood is lost through menstruation Iron If there isn t iron present hemoglobin cannot be produced to carry the oxygen Body compensates by storing iron From diet in the forms of ferritin and hemosiderin When the body transports iron to the bone marrow for red blood cell formation it is transported in the transferrin form Red blood cells are essentially dead cells and when they are broken down the body attempts to salvage the iron by converting it back to transferrin to transfer to the liver to reconvert in the storage form of hemosiderin to be recycle Overall Iron is needed to make hemoglobin and hemoglobin is needed to make red blood cells B vitamins Especially 312 and Folic Acid When a female becomes pregnant she consumes a daily prenatal vitamin that has many B vitamins to make sure there is enough oxygen being produced for her and the baby Dietary nutrients Enough dietary nutrients is needed to be able to create the red blood cells in the first place Includes proteins lipids and carbohydrates that are all necessary to make the plasma membrane and organelles In the bone marrow Overall Dietary and chemical signals are all a part of the erythropoiesis process Slide 17 Erythrocyte Longevity Erythrocytes last on average for about 4 months Old ones are phagocytized by macrophages 9 Heme is split off the globin as a result and is transported to the liver to be re converted and stored as hemosiderin and ferritin that is bound to proteins The hemoglobin molecule is converted to bilirubin that is picked up by the liver and converted into bile Bile aids in digestion of lipids and is constantly being produced by the liver but can be stored in the gallbladder when it s not needed Some of the breakdown of bilirubin Pigment portion is expelled in feces and turns the color brown Some of the globin is broken down to amino acid constituents that are put into storage to later be used to rebuild other proteins Overall The erythrocyte is recycled as much as possible but it still loses some components in general Slide 18 Erythrocyte Disorders Anemias In terms of any time the blood has a low oxygen carrying ability Insufficient numbers of red blood cells Can t carry enough oxygen Have irregularly shaped red blood cells like in sickle cell anemia that have a crescent moon shape Can t properly hold oxygen Polycythemia Too many red blood cells packing blood vessels Leads to inability to push through blood vessels and makes the blood sludgelike and incapable of delivering oxygen to any tissues Slide 19 Diapedesis Greek dia pedan Means to go through leapquot Ability for a blood cell to the leave the blood vessels in the passing of circulation Red blood cells are incapable of diapedesis They stay in circulation Some white blood cells are able to diapedese Monocytes Slide 20 Leukocytes Complete cells with nuclei and organelles Display positive chemotaxis Release chemicals in an area so that other white blood cells will migrate towards that area attraction to an area Pass through circulation White blood cells make up lt 1 of total blood volume 9 4800 10800 WBCuL of blood Slide 21 Leukocytes 2 Types a Granulocytes Contain granules in vesicles Neutrophils 0 Most common of all white blood cells Account for 5070 of white blood cell population Multilobed nucleus Key characteristic Contain granules Phagocytic cells Function during in ammatory response Part of the immune response in tissue repair and in ammation Eosinophils 0 Make up 24 of all white blood cells 0 2 lobed nucleus Often looks Ushaped 0 Contain enzymes in their granules that digest parasitic worms Basophils 0 Make up O51 of all white blood cells OOOO 0 Contain histamines in their granules that 1 Dilate blood vessels so that more blood is delivered to specific spot 2 Promotes the attraction of other white blood cells to that area b Agranulocytes Don t have granules Lymphocytes 0 Second most numerous white blood cells Account for 25 0 Most of the cell is made up of the nucleus 0 Major immune cell Includes Tlymphocytes Attack viruses and tumors and Blymphocytes Attack bacteria and produce antibodies 0 Predominantly found in the lymphoid tissue Monocytes 0 Make up 38 of all white blood cells Have a Ushaped nucleus Largest in size of white blood cells Phagocytic cells Able to diapedese Can leave circulation to differentiate into highly mobile macrophages Phagocytic activate lymphocytes to mount the immune response Slide 22 Leukopoiesis Hemocytoblasts Stem cell in the bone marrow give rise to myeloid stem cells Produce all other formed elements and lymphoid stem cells Produce lymphocytes Slide 23 Granulocyte Leukopoiesis Hemocytoblasts 9 myeloid stem cells 9 myeloblasts Committed cell that can only become a granulocyte at this point Myeloblasts accumulate lysosomes Granules to become promyelocytes that differentiate into myelocytes Cell division stops here at the myelocyte stage so that nuclei start to arch to form band cells 9 Nuclei constrict and segment so that the myelocyte Do have accumulated granules becomes a mature granulocyte Slide 24 Agranulocyte Leukopoiesis Monocytes Hemocytoblasts 9 myeloid stem cells 9 monoblasts Committed cell that can only become an agranulocyte at this point9 promonocytes Promonocytes leave the bone marrow to become monocytes in lymph tissues Can last for months Slide 25 Agranulocyte Leukopoiesis Lymphocytes Hemocytoblasts 9 lymphoid stem cells Committed cell that produces agranulocytelymphocytes 9 lymphoblasts 9 prolymphocytes Prolymphoctes leave the bone marrow and become mature lymphocytes in the lymph tissue Specifically T and B lymphocytes comes from lymphoid stem cells Slide 26 Regulation of Leukopoiesis Interleukins9 Accumulation stimulates luekopoiesis in the bone marrow O O O O ColonyStimulating Factors CSF s 9 Accumulation stimulate leucopoiesis in the bone marrow Slide 27 Leukocyte Disorders Leukemia Cancer of white blood cells Abnormal cell division Infectious mononucleosis White blood cell disorder that is in response to an infection from the EpsteinBarr virus EpsteinBarr virus causes can increase in the production of agranulocytes Excessive amounts Leukopenia Deficiency in the number of white blood cells Slide 28 Platelets Anucleated cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes 9 Does not contain organelles either and are essentially chunks of pinched off cytoplasm granules Granules contain clotting chemicals Role of platelets is to cause blood clotting Slide 29 Thrombopoiesis Old name for platelets thrombocytes Hemocytoblasts 9 myeloid stem cells 9 megakaryoblasts Committed cell Megakaryoblasts undergo repeated mitosis but no cytokinesis to form megakaryocytes where its cytoplasmic extensions break off to be platelets Slide 30 Regulation of Thrombopoiesis Thrombopoietin Hormone that stimulates platelet formation in the bone marrow when they re needed by the body Slide 3 1 Hemostasis Hemostasis prevent blood loss function of platelets Blood is a uid tissue that is contained within blood vessels all the time Few cells that are able to move out of circulation and pass across the wall of blood vessels diapedesis Most blood cells can t do this Damage to blood vessels would result in blood loss so this is where hemostasis comes into play 3 Major Steps of Hemostasis a Vascular spasm When the blood vessel is damaged and is cut open the blood vessel immediately constricts Constriction of the blood vessels slows down the passage of blood and therefore the loss of blood b Platelet plug formation Platelets will collect at the site of damage There is a chemical signal that causes the platelets to stay where there is constriction of the blood vessel as it still bleeds c Coagulation Blood clotting occurs and there is coagulation Damage to the blood vessel is plugged with a blood clot to prevent the loss of blood and this stimulates the repair of the blood vessel The blood vessel will grow back together as a result and become an integral unit again Slide 32 Platelet Plug Formation Blood vessel has to be damaged for there to be an accumulation of platelets When there is damage to a blood vessel underlying connective tissue specifically collagen fibers are exposed to the blood Also damage to a blood vessel causes the accumulation of 2 chemicals that cause platelets passing by to stick at the site of damage Stick to the collagen fibers a von Willebrand Factor Plasma protein that s already in the blood but as blood passes by the damaged vessel this protein will accumulate due to the exposure of the collagen fibers b The damaged blood vessel itself releases thromboxane A2 prostaglandin A paracrine local signaling molecule that accumulates at the damaged site Once the platelets are attached to the site of damage due to von Willebrand factor and thromboxane A2 thrombin activates platelets to break down and release their contents from their granules Clotting factors Important to not plug the whole blood vessel as it s being repaired or else blood won t be able to pass through Slide 33 Limitations to Platelet Plug Intact endothelial cells secrete PGlz prostacyclin A prostaglandin that prevents platelets from sticking to where it is secreted on healthy cells Heparin is also secreted by healthy intact endothelial cells that prevent platelet attachment Vitamin E quinone Vitamin E is a blood thinner that prevents platelets from adhering Essentially the body regulates where a clot is needed and where it isn t needed efficiently Slide 34 Intrinsic Pathway to Coagulation First way involving action of platelets After the platelets form coagulation follows gelling of blood at the site of damage A very complex process Coagulation involves a series of reactions in which clotting factors are converted to active forms Ultimately aggregated platelets are stimulated to dump their contents from their granules clotting factors to lead to coagulation and release PF3 PF3 activates a bunch of intermediates 10 steps Not discussed here which results in the activation of factor X Once factor X is activated it combines with calcium PF3 and factor V to form prothrombin activator Prothrombin activator activates prothrombin and catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin Inactive form to thrombin Active form Thrombin catalyzes the polymerization of fibrinogen into fibrin Active form that surrounds the accumulated platelets like a hairnet to hold everything together in place Thrombin also activates factor XIII which links fibrin strands together and makes a mesh There are 13 clotting factors in total Slide 35 Extrinsic Pathway to Coagulation Extrinsic pathway aids the intrinsic pathway in making the blood clot The extrinsic pathway is a short cut that skips some intermediate steps so that instead of relying on the platelets to release their contents of clotting factors from their granules the damaged cells of the blood vessel release chemicals These chemicals tissue factor That is in addition to the thrombxoin A2 being released which interacts with PF3 to allow a short cut to factor X activation Tissue factor helps the coagulation process and speeds it along but it s important to note that it won t do this alone because PF3 comes from platelets originally Short cut and regular path with platelets work together Slide 36 Clot Retraction As the blood vessel is repairing itself it is necessary to break down the clot slowly so it is not released all at one Platelets contained within their granules have proteins involved with retraction Contractile proteins The contractile proteins pull to contract and as they contract they cause the platelets to contract and squeeze out serum out of the blood clot so that it becomes harder denser and smaller As the blood vessel starts to contract it pulls the two edges of the blood vessel together to have tissue repair PDGF Platelet Derive Growth Factor is released by the platelets as they start to break down and stimulates healing of the blood vessel by stimulating cell division Granulation tissue forms and there is regeneration of the tissue so that the epithelium and connective tissue are in tact Another way of explaining As platelets start to breakdown and the clot is shrinking platelets release PDGF chemical that tells neighboring cells to start dividing so that the blood vessel repairs itself With the blood vessel fixed the clot is even smaller and still needs to be broken up Don t want to release it at one time Slide 37 Fibrinolysis Fibrinolysis Process of breaking down fibrin Clot is broken apart as a result of the blood vessel being healed Fibrin mesh must be broken up slowly so that small pieces are released into circulation and can be phagocytized otherwise the whole rest of the clot could lodge into blood vessels of the lungs or brain and cause death New endothelial cells produce plasminogen activator AKA TPA which activates plasminogen that is released by the clot The clot produces plasminogen that is activated to plasmin due to the new endothelial cells that were produced during blood vessel repair Plasmin digests the fiber Slide 38 Clot Limiting Factors Clotting factors are released by platelets that cause the clot to accumulate but with blood still owing through the damaged blood vessel some of the chemicals are transported away and diluted so that they aren t having an effect on the clot itself in order to make sure that the clot doesn t get too big Antithrombin III inactivates thrombin which in turn slows down the clotting process Protein C inhibits the intermediate steps in the activation of factor X in the intrinsic pathway events Caused by platelets Heparin Produced by intact endothelial cells that enhances antithrombin III and inhibits the intrinsic pathway events in order to keep the clot from getting too big Slide 39 Hemostasis Disorders Thromboembolytic Disorders Excessive blood clot production Thrombus Forms a blood clot in healthy blood vessels and is stationary so it blocks the ow of blood This can become an issue with long distance plane ights where people don t move their legs frequently Embolism Blood clot that moves through the body and it ultimately finds an area that it can t pass through 9 clog up Bleeding Disorders Insufficient blood clot production Thrombocytopenia Insufficient amount of platelets in the body Reduction of platelets due to diseasepathology such as an infection Hemophilia Genetic disorder that causes excessive bleeding 9 Individual isn t able to produce one of the clotting proteins since he she doesn t have a gene for the protein so blood clot can t be produced Can apply for any of the 13 clotting factor proteins but can be an extra problem with some of the more important ones that were discussed Slide 40 Human Blood Typing Determined by the presence of agglutinogens ABC and Rh D Agglutinogen Some people refer to them as antigens but antigens actually are a marker that stimulate the immune system to attack it Agglutinogens would human blood typing are found on the surface of red blood cells A agglutinogen on a red blood cell Blood type A B aggultinogen on a red blood cell Blood type B A and B agglutinogens on a red blood cell Blood type AB Neither A or B agglutinogens on a red blood cell Blood type 0 Rh factor AKA D agglutinogen Ex If have A agglutinogen Rh D agglutinogen A If the Rh D is not present on the surface of the red blood cell then there is a after the A B AB or 0 blood type All 3 agglutinogens present on the surface of a red blood cell 2 AB Agglutinogens Markers on red blood cells determine agglutinins 9 Blood type A produces antiB agglutinins which attacks cells with the B agglutinogen Why blood type B cannot be donated and mixed with blood type A Blood type B produces antiA agglutinins which attacks cells with the A agglutinogen Why blood type A cannot be donated and mixed with blood type B Blood type AB produces neither antiA agglutinins or antiB agglutinins Universal recipient Blood type 0 produces antiA agglutinins and antiB agglutinins Can only accept 0 blood type Individual with blood type 0 universal donor because it has absolutely no agglutinogens so any blood type has nothing to attack Reemphasis Individual with blood type AB is the universal recipient because it doesn t produce any agglutinins Won t reject any blood type Hemolytic Disease of Newborn or Erythroblastosis Fetalis If a female is Rh D and she gets pregnant with a baby that is Rh D 2 male is Rh D then the first baby is ok Rh D accumulates as a result in the mother The second baby is not ok because as soon as it is born its blood coagulates so that it dies shortly after birth Important for mother with Rh D to receive a shot of rhogam which suppresses production of anti RH D agglutinins Often times given to mother regardless of blood type
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