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Psych 1000, Chapters 2-4 Notes

by: Marie Markoff

Psych 1000, Chapters 2-4 Notes PSYC 1010

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > PSYC 1010 > Psych 1000 Chapters 2 4 Notes
Marie Markoff

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About this Document

These notes cover all material from chapters 2 through 4
Introductory Psychology
Melinda Cannon
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marie Markoff on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Cannon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
Chapter 2 Nervous System Peripheral Central (brain and spinal cord) Autonomic (controls self regulated action of internal organs and glands) \ Somatic (controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles) Sympathetic (arousing) - flight or fight Parasynthetic (calming) rest and digest Neural Network “neurons that fire together, wire together” • the brain is a web of neural networks • The spinal cord is full of interneurons that sometimes have a mind of their own ie a reflex action The endocrine system • refers to a set of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones • Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, parathyroids, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovary, testis. • messages sent through the bloodstream • these chemical messengers are called hormones Adrenal glands • produce hormones such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol • sympathetic nervous system responds to stress by sending a message to the adrenal gland • Effect: increased heart rate, blood pressure and blood sugar. • it provides energy for flight or fight The Pituitary gland • the “master gland” (regulates other glands) • controlled by the hypothalamus • releases growth hormone- especially during sleep - and oxytocin, the “bonding” hormone. • oxytocin released during social interactions - sex, childbirth, breastfeeding etc. Areas of the brain and their functions The brainstem and cerebellum • coordinates the body the Limbic (border) system: • manages emotions and connects thought to body the cortex (the outer everything) • integrates information Base of brainstem: Medulla • controls the most basic functions such as heartbeat and breathing The brainstem: Pons • helps coordinate automatic and unconscious movements The Thalamus • sensory switchboard • receives info from sense; sends it to higher brain regions Reticular Formation • enables alertness (arousal) Cerebellum • helps coordinate voluntary movement • enables nonverbal learning and memory (learning to ride a bike) The Limbic System (border system) • consists of: hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus Hippocampus • processes conscious memories • works with the amygdala to form emotionally charged memories Amygdala • processes emotions, especially rage and fear • not fully developed in teenagers Hypothalamus • regulates body temp • ensures adequate food and water intake • involved in sex drive • directs the endocrine system via messages to the pituitary gland • a reward center Cerebral cortex: • outer grey “bark” structure that is wrinkled in order to create more surface area for 20 billion neurons • 300 trillion synaptic connections • the brain has a left and right hemisphere • left side controls the right side of your body, the right side controls the left side of your body The Lobes frontal lobes • involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements Parietal lobes • include the sensory cortex • makes sense of being touched etc Occipital Lobes • they include the visual areas, they receive vis ual info from the opposite visual field Temporal lobes • include the auditory processing areas Functions of the brain The motor and sensory strip Motor cortex • controls the body’s right side (movement) Somatosensory cortex • receives input from the body’s right side (feeling) Association function of the cortex • more complex animals have more cortical space devoted to integrating/associating information The frontal lobes are active in executive functions such as judgement, planning and inhibition impulses Phineas Gage: after frontal lobe was damaged, his self control went away Specialization and Integration If the brain is damaged • the brain usually does not repair damaged neurons, but it can restore some functions • it can form new connections and reassign existing networks To end severe whole brain seizures, some people have had surgery to cut the corpus callosum, a band of axons connecting the hemispheres. Left Hemisphere • “lingustic left” • controls speech • only the left half of the brain has enou gh verbal ability to express its thoughts out loud • thoughts and logic • calculation • details Right Hemisphere • feelings and intuition • language: tone, inflection, context • perception • wholes, including the self 1/29/16 - Chapter 3 *Note* there are practice questions in your textbook in every chapter, use that to study!!! Consciousness and the two -track mind States of consciousness • spontaneously: daydreaming, drowsy, dreaming • Psychologically induced: Hallucinations, orgasm, food or oxygen starvation Conscious vs. Unconscious (Dual -track mind) Conscious “high” track • our minds take deliberate actions we know we are doing • ie problem solving, naming etc Unconscious “low” trac k • our minds processing automatic actions without being aware of them • ie walking, acquiring phobias details of memories. Benefit: not having to think about everything all at once ie you can walk and chew gum and hold a conversation at the same time Consequences: selective attention and selective inattention • our brain is able to choose a focus and select what to notice Cocktail party effect • we can focus our mental spotlight on a conversation, even though there are other conversations going on bad news • we can hyper focus on a conversation while driving a car, which puts us at risk we are really good at focusing on one thing at a time Selective Inattention • Sometimes it is hard to block out stimuli • what we focus on, we notice, what we are not focu sed on, we do not notice • it refers to our failure to notice part of our environment when our attention is directed elsewhere Inattentional blindness • basketball / gorilla vid Change Blindness • fake tourist video Sleep and Biological Rhythms The circadian rhythm • the body’s natural 24 hour cycle, matched with day/night cycle of light and dark • rising and falling over the course of day and night: body temp, arousal, energy, mental sharpness Sleep stages • every 90 mins, we pass through different stages • Alpha waves are the brain in a relaxed but awake state Falling asleep • breathing slows down • you may have hypnagogic (while falling asleep) hallucinations • your brain waves change from alpha waves to NREM -1 NREM-1 • asleep but not dreaming yet NREM-3 • deepest stage of sleep REM • rapid eye movement • dreams occur during periods of wild brain activity sleep paralysis • occurs when the brainstem blocks the motor cortex’s messages and the muscles don’t move • this is also known as paradoxical sleep; brain is active but body is immobile • the length of REM sleep increases the longer you remain asleep What determines the quantity and rhythm of sleep? • the amount of sleep is affected by biology, age, culture, and individual variation • light and the brain regulate sleep • the more your brain is developing, the more you need to sleep • newborns need 16 hours of sleep while adults need 8 hours or less • some people function best with 7 hours of sleep, others with 9 hours or more • north americans sleep less than others, and less than they used to, perhaps because of the use of light bulbs The Circadian rhythm is hard to shift (jet lag) this can be affected by light (production of melatonin when it’s dark out) 2/1/16 - Chapter 3 Why do we sleep? 1. sleep protected our ancestors from predators 2. sleep restores and repairs the brain and body 3. sleep builds and strengthens memories 4. sleep facilitates creative problem solving 5. sleep is the time growth hormones are active When you are sleep deprived • lose brain power • gain weight • get sick • irritable • feel old sleep loss results in more accidents How to sleep well 1. turn the lights low and turn all screens off 2. eat earlier and drink less alcohol and caffeine 3. get up at the same time everyday 4. exercise 5. don’t check the clock 6. get counseling for anxiety and depression Altering Consciousness Tolerance • refers to the diminished psychoactive effects after repeated use • tolerance feeds addiction Withdrawal • painful body symptoms readjusting to the absence of the drug • worsens addiction because users want to resume taking the drug to relieve symptoms Dependence on a substance • using more than you intended • failed attempts to regulate use • much time spent preoccupied with the substance, obtaining it, and recovering • important activities reduced because of use • continued to use despite aversive consequences Depressants - reduce body activities Alcohol • disinhibitor- turns off filter • slow neural processing • reaction time slowed • impaired self control • more likely to have casual sex Barbiturates • reduced anxiety and inducing sleep • reducing memory and judgement • can lead to death if combined with alcohol Opiates • depress pain • high doses lead to euphoria • opiates work at receptor sites for the body’s natural pain reducers • morphine, heroin made from opium poppy Stimulants - intensify neural activity and bodily functions Caffeine • adds energy • can lead to some withdrawal symptoms • headaches, irritability, fatigue • depression Nicotine • Increases heart rate • makes you more awake • relaxes muscles • helps anxiety Why do people smoke? invited by peers, influenced by culture and media Continuing: reinforced by stimulating effects Not stopping: withdrawal symptoms such as insomnia, anxiety, distractibility and irritability Cocaine • dopamine (feels rewarding) • serotonin (lifts mood) • norepinephrine (provides energy) • euphoria for 45 minutes • withdrawal sucks - users develop tolerance Meth • triggers the sustained release of dopamine, sometimes leading to 8 hours of euphoria • next, you get insomnia, seizures, violence, depression • meth addiction can become all consuming Ecstasy/MDMA • increases dopamine and serotonin • euphoria, hallucinations • artificial feeling of social connectedness and intimacy • regretted behavior, dehydration, overheating and high blood pressure • damage to serotonin producing neurons, causing permanent depressed mood Hallucinogens LSD • interferes with serotonin transmission • creates disturbed perceptions Marijuana • amplifies sensations • relaxes, disinhibits impulses • euphoric mood • lack of ability to sense satiety • impaired motor coordination • over time, the brain shrinks in areas processing memor y and emotion Why do people become drug addicts? biological influences • dependence in relatives • thrill-seeking in childhood • easily disrupted dopamine reward system psychological influences • depression, problems assessing risks and costs social-cultural influences • media glorification • observing peers only 10 to 16% of people who try drugs become addicted recovery rates do not seem to differ much from people quitting on their own Chapter 4 - Nature, Nurture, Human Identity Behavior genetics- • how heredity and environment contribute to human differences Genes • 46 chromosomes • 23 matched sets • genes are not blueprints, they are molecules • they are molecules that direct the assembly of proteins Twins • fraternal twins from separate eggs are not any more genetically alike than other siblings • Identical twins are same sex only • fraternal twins can be same sex or opposite sex • identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins in personality traits, interests etc • these things are strongly genetic Biological vs adoptive relatives • adopted children seem to be more like their biological parents than environmental nurture Parenting does matter • religious beliefs • values • manners • attitudes • politics • habits Why are siblings different? • siblings only share half of their genes • siblings are raised in slightly different families, the youngest has more older siblings and has older (wiser and/or more tired) parents • child can influence parents Temperament is another dif ference not caused by parenting • from infancy into adulthood, most people do not seem to change temperament • 3 types of temperament in infancy: easy, difficult, slow to warm up • we change less and less as we age Heritability • the amount of variation in the population that is explained by genetic factors • this does not tell us the proportion that genes contribute to the trait for any one person example; people with the same upbringing and there are differences in shyness = heritability of this trait for them is close to 100 percent (differences caused by genes) • some traits are set by genes (ie having 2 eyes) • other traits such as physical and mental abilities develop in response to experience • ie if you’re athletic you continue to develop that trait by doing sports • Molecular genetics : studying the structure and function of genes • Molecular behavior genetics: how do the structure and function og genes interact with our environment to influence behavior • Self regulation: genes turn each other on and off in response to environmental conditions • ie: in animals, shortened daylight triggers animals to change fur color or to hibernate • Epigenetics: the environment acts on the surface of genes to alter their activity (without DNA change) • ie in humans, obesity in adults can turn off weight regulation genes in offspring • epigenetic molecules block receptors to the on switch for developing the brain’s stress hormone receptors • the trait of being adaptable is built into the human genome • we can change our environments, behaviors, diets, lifestyles, skills, etc. • evolutionary psychology is the study of how evolutionary principles help explain the origin and function of the human mind, traits, and behaviors • Artificial selection : russian scientists spent 40 years selecting the most gentle, friendly, and tame foxes from a fox population and having those reproduce • they shaped avoidant and aggressive creatures into social ones • Why does stranger anxiety develop between the ages of 9 and 13 months ? • theory: humans are learning to walk at this time • infants who used their new ability to walk by walking away from their family didn’t survive • why do people so easily acquire a phobia of snakes? • snakes are often poisonous so we have learned to fear them How are males and females different: • generally, men think more about sex than women, and men are more likely to think that casual sex is acceptable • An evolutionary psychologist answer: • men who had the trait of promiscuity were more likely to have their genes continue and even spread in the next generation. and there is little cost to spreading extra genes • for women, pregnancy was once life threatening. Evolutionary strategies in seeking partne rs • are males and females really so different in their mating choices? • differences are less in cultures that move to gender equality • much of gender behavior is a function of culture • homosexuality: guesses such as population control Critiquing evolution ary psych • “this is hindsight reasoning and unscientific” • “you’re attributing too much to genes” How Environment/experience affects brain development • income level, house we live in, place we live in • Ex: mice in impoverished environment had less brain c ells that mice in enriched environment with lots of stimulation Brain development means growth and pruning • experience activate and strengthen neural connections • the unused connections are pruned away • we are given too many neurons at birth and over time we prune the ones we don’t need • the brain’s development does not end with childhood • the power of parenting is clearest at the extremes - severe neglect and abuse • non abusive “average” parents should ea se off on both the blame and the credit they assume for how their kids turn out • still, children who feel good about their parents feel better about themselves and the world Parents vs. Peers Parents have more influence on • education path • responsibilities • the way you talk to authority figures • religion • values Peers have more influence on • path to popularity • choice of music • recreation • good and bad habits Culture influences on development • culture refers to the patterns, ideas, attitud es, values etc shared by a group of people and passed on to future generations • each culture has norms • culture shock: feeling lost about what behaviors are appropriate • Cultural variation: language changes in vocabulary • pace of life quickness • gender equality increases • sleep less, socialize in person less • people marry more for love • more divorce, depression • these changes occur too fast to be rooted in genetic changes Individualist • cultures value independence. they promote personal ideals, strengths, and goals pursued in competition with others, leading to individual achievement and finding unique identity Collectivist • cultures value interdependence . They promote group and societal goals and duties, and blending in with group identity, wi th achievement attributed to mutual support • People raised in individualist cultures might raise children to be self reliant and independent • people in collectivist cultures might raise children to be compliant, obedient, and integrated into webs of mutual support • although there are cultural differences, the differences within a group Gender Development • gender refers to the physical, social, and behavioral characteristics that are culturally associated with male and female roles and identity Biological differences • females begin puberty earlier, live longer, and have more fat and less muscle • females are more likely to have depression, anxiety and eating disorders • men are more likely to have autism, ADHD, and antisocial personality disorder • men are more likely to be physically aggressive • in most societies, men are more socially dominant • When boys play, they focus on the activity, larger groups, more competitive, not much intimate discussion • girls focus on connection, conversation, smaller groups, more social, girls tend to invite feedback • men often talk assertively • men state their opinions and solutions • men speak about things and actions • women seek input and explore relationships • women speak about people and feelings • both men and women turn to women when they want someone to talk to, share worries/hurts • when coping with their own stress, women, often turn to others for support “tend and befriend” Gender role • the behaviors expected of people related to their identity as men and women Gender Identity • one’s sense of identity Social learning theory • gender role behavior is learned through observation, imitation, rewards and punishments Gender schemas • the cognitive frameworks for organizing boy-girl characteristics • young children are internally motivated to categorize everything, including people and are motivated to conform


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