Lecture 3 Outliine
Lecture 3 Outliine Bio 1023
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katy Davit on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURE!3! ! Organic Molecules I The Molecules of Life: •! There are four main macromolecules found in all living things o! Carbohydrates o! Proteins o! Lipids o! Nucleic acids •! All of these macromolecules undergo two very important chemical reactions o! Dehydration o! Hydrolysis Macromolecule Formation: •! Dehydration Reaction- A synthesis reaction that links subunits (monomers) together to form larger molecules (polymers) o! This results in loss of water molecule Macromolecules: •! Hydrolysis (water-breaking) •! Polymers broken down into monomers •! Uses a molecule of water Carbohydrates: •! Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms o! Carbon compounds that are hydrated •! Most of the carbon atoms in a carbohydrate are linked to a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group •! Includes monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides Monosaccharides: •! Simplest sugars •! Most common are 5 or 6 carbons o! Pentose- 5 carbons !! Ribose !! Deoxyribose o! Hexose !! Glucose •! Different ways to depict structures o! Ring or linear Disaccharides: •! Carbohydrates composed of two monosaccharides o! Joined by dehydration or condensation reaction o! Broken apart by hydrolysis o! Maltose- Glucose + Glucose o! Sucrose- Glucose + Fructose PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURE!3! ! o! Lactose- Glucose + Galactose Polysaccharides: •! Carbohydrates composed of many monosaccharides linked together (polymers) •! Energy storage o! Starch (plants) !! Moderately branched o! Glycogen (animals) !! Highly branched glucose polymer !! Stored in liver and muscle cells •! Structural Role o! Chitin (exoskeleton) o! Glycosaminoglycan (cartilage) o! Cellulose !! Unbranched glucose polymer !! Not broken down by hydrolysis !! Most abundant organic material on earth Proteins: •! Polymers composed of amino acids monomers •! 20 amino acids with common structures •! Side-chain determines structures and functions •! Amino acids joined by peptide bonds to form polypeptides •! Possess N-terminus and C-terminus •! Joined by dehydration reaction •! Broken apart by hydrolysis Protein Structures: •! Four levels of organization (Hierarchical) •! Primary structure o! Linear sequence of amino acids o! Genetically determined •! Secondary structure o! Folding or pleating of primary structure o! Key determinates of a protein’s characteristics o! Shape is specific and important to function •! Tertiary structure o! Bending and folding of secondary structure gives complex 3D shape o! Final level of structure for single polypeptide chain •! Quaternary structure o! Made up of 2 or more polypeptides o! Protein subunits- individual polypeptides o! Multimeric proteins- proteins with multiple parts PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURE!3! ! Enzyme Features: •! Active site- location where reaction takes place •! Substrate- reactants that bind to active site •! Enzyme/substrate complex formed when enzyme and substrate bind •! Provide binding sites for substrate molecules o! Active sites •! Binding stresses chemical bonds o! Allows for easier breakdown/binding •! Catalyze one specific type of reaction Substrate Binding: •! Enzyme have a high affinity or high degree of specificity for a substrate •! Example of a lock and key for substrate and enzyme binding •! Induced fit- interaction also involves conformational changes
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