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A&P Epithelial Tissue and Glands

by: Amber Zurn

A&P Epithelial Tissue and Glands BIOL 221

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > BIOL 221 > A P Epithelial Tissue and Glands
Amber Zurn
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About this Document

Notes covering the different functions and types of epithelial tissues and glands.
Human Anatomy & Physiology
Stella A. Evans
Class Notes
Biology Anatomy Epithelial Tissues Glands




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Zurn on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 221 at Towson University taught by Stella A. Evans in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
1 BIOL 221 Epithelium and Glands Histology: ­ The study of the microscopic structure of tissues.  What is a tissue?  ­ Groups of cells similar in structure and function.  Tissue classes:  ­   pithelial: ­ Composed almost entirely of cells; they form continuous sheets held together by  tight junctions and desmosomes. Epithelial tissues also have apical and basal surfaces, both  supported by connective tissue.  ­   onnective: ­ This is the tissue that connects, supports, binds, or separates other tissues or  organs. ­  M uscle: ­ Muscle tissue, also composed of cells and/or fibers, allows a contraction in which produces movement in the body, usually a particular movement.  ­   ervous  ­ The main component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord which is part of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nerves of the  peripheral nervous system (PNS); which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.  Epithelial Tissue:  ­ Functions ­ Protection: Cover body surfaces and line body cavities. Protects skin.  ­ Produce  secretion  s: Sweat glands.  ­ Absorption,  E  xcretion and  F iltration: Intestinal mucosa.  ­ Sensation: Epithelium (skin) covering our body surface allows us to sense  smells, sounds, and sights from the external world.  ­  Characteristics of     pithelial  issue: ­   olarity:  ­    pical   urfac :  ­ Surface of epithelial cell that is exposed to the body exterior or to the cavity of an internal organ.  ­ “Free surface.” ­ Has microvilli. (Microvilli helps increase surface  area in epithelial tissue). ­ Can also have cilia.  2 ­   ateral    urfac : Three factors act to bind the epithelial cells to  each other; ­ Adhesion proteins in the plasma membranes of the  adjacent cells link together in the narrow extracellular space. ­ The wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent  cells join in a tongue and groove fashion. ­ Special cell junctions. ­    asal   urface : ­ Surface of epithelial tissue in contact with the  structure that the epithelial tissue is covering or lining.  ­ Within basal surface is basement membrane. ­    asal   amina : ­ A supporting sheet at the border between the  epithelium and the connective tissue.  ­ Thin, non­cellular sheet that consists of proteins  secreted by the epithelial cells. ­ Acts as a selective filter, determining which  molecules from the capillaries in the underlying connective tissue are allowed to  enter the epithelium.  ­ Also acts as a scaffolding along which regenerating epithelial cells can migrate. ­ A layer of extracellular matrix secreted by  the  epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits.  ­    ttachment  :  ­ Basal surface is bound to a thin basal lamina.  ­ Epithelium attaches to basal laminae; reticular laminae gives  strength to epithelium. ­   vascularity:  ­ Does not contain blood vessels, obtain nutrients by  diffusion/absorption through the apical and basal membranes.  ­   egeneration:  ­ Continually recycled with new cells being created by mitotic  activity while old cells are sloughed off.  ­   ellularity: Cell junctions  ­  Tight junction : ­ Or “Zonula Occludens”, is a belt­like junction. It  extends around the periphery of the apical region in most epithelial tissues. ­ Some proteins can be fused in the plasma  membrane due to the adjacent cells being so close together, which forms a seal  that closes off the extracellular space; preventing molecules from passing  between the cells of the epithelial tissue. ­  Gap junction  : ­ Or “Nexus”, is a tunnel­like junction that can occur  anywhere alone the lateral membranes of adjacent cells.  ­ Function in Intercellular communication by allowing  small molecules to move directly between neighboring cells.  3 ­ The adjacent plasma membranes are very close  and the cells are connected by hollow cylinders of protein (connexons).  ­  Button     esmosone  : ­ Holds muscles together.  ­  Hemidesmosome  : ­ Are very small structures located on the inner basal surface of keratinocytes in the epidermis of skin.  ­  Classification of epithelial cells  : ­    imple : One layer. ­    tratifi  Multiple layers. Has no cilia. Simple squamous: ­ Is a single layer of flat cells in contact with the basal lamina of the epithelium.  ­ Often permeable and occurs where small molecules pass quickly through membranes via  filtration or diffusion. Stratified squamous: ­ Consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane.  Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to  maintain structural integrity.  ­ Does not have cilia. Simple cuboidal: ­ Is a type of epithelium that consists of a single layer of cuboidal (cube­like) cells. ­ Have large, spherical and central nuclei.  4 Stratified cuboidal: ­ Type of epithelial tissue composed of multiple layers of cube­shaped cells.  ­ Only the most superficial layer is made up of cuboidal cells, other layers can be made up of  other types of cells.  ­ Does not have cilia. Simple columnar: ­ Is a columnar epithelium that is uni­layered.  ­ Lines most organs of the digestive tract including the stomach, small intestine, and the large  intestine. Pseudostratified columnar: ­ Is a type of epithelium that has its cell nuclei positioned in a manner suggestive of a stratified  epithelia; so it appears to be more than one layer, however, is only one layer.  ­ Functions in secretion or absorption.  ­ Found in palms and bottom of the feet.  ­ Has cilia.  Transitional: Glandular epithelium ­ Endocrine glands: ­  (endo=inside), ductless glands  ­ Secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood stream rather than  through a duct. ­ Exocrine glands:  ­ (exo=outside), connected by ducts  ­ Secrete their products into ducts. i.e. sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary  glands, and many glands in the digestive system.  Exocrine glands  : ­ Gland structure: ­ Glandular epithelial tissues arranged in single or multi­layered sheets. ­ Gland tissue does not have blood vessels running through it. ­ Nourished by vessels in the connective tissue.  ­   nicellular glands: Single­celled secretory cells. Ex.; goblet and mucous cells. ­   ulti­cellular glands: All other exocrine glands. Function is the mode of secretion. ­   ranched or unbranched? ­    imple gland  : Single unbranched duct (glands of large intestine).  ­   ompound gland: Branches duct (salivary glands).  ­    Shape of S   ecretory  Units: ­   ubular (alveolar): Sweat glands.  ­ Acinar: Shaped like a grape (salivary glands).  5  Modes of secretion  : ­   erocrine glands:  ­ Product released by exocytosis (most sweat glands). The most common type of  secretion. ­   pocrine glands:  ­ Involves the loss of apical cytoplasm. Inclusions, secretory vesicles, and other  cytoplasmic components are shed in the process. The gland cell then grows and repairs itself  before it releases addition secretions.  ­ These glands are mostly merocrine.  ­   olocrine glands:  ­ The cell has everything packaged, and then the cell burst open and releases  everything. The (dead) cell than is replaced by a new cell.  ­ Whole cell ruptures during release of product. ­ Types of secretions ­   erous:  ­ Type of watery secretion that often contains enzymes. ­   ucous:  ­ Type of secretion which contains glycoprotein, and is not watery, by viscid. ­   ixed exocrine:  ­ Contains both serous and mucous secretory units.  Review questions from your book: 1. Distinguish between simple and stratified epithelia, and explain why pseudostratified columnar epithelium  belongs in the former category. Simple is a single layer while stratified epithelia is multiple layers, pseudostratifies columnar belongs in the  former category because it appears as though it is multiple layers, but it is only one. 2. Explain how to distinguish a stratified squamous epithelium from a transitional epithelium. Transitional epithelium has multiple layers that can contract and expand, while stratified squamous epithelium  consists of squamous which is flat layers arranged in the basal membrane.   . How do the epithelia of the esophagus and stomach differ? How does this relate to their respective  functions? Esophagus: Stratifies squamous lines it to provide physical protection. Stomach: Simple columnar lines it for protection, secretion, and absorption.    . Compare the structure of tight junctions and gap junctions. Relate their structural differences to their  functional differences. 6 Tight junctions are belt­like and allow for very little molecules from passing through the epithelial tissue, while  gap junctions are “tunnel­like” functions in intercellular communication so allows some molecules to come  through.    . Distinguish between a simple gland and a compound gland, and give an example of each. What about a  tubular gland and an acinar gland? A simple gland is a single unbranched duct while a compound gland has a branched ducts. A tubular gland has a duct and secretary portion are of uniform diameter, the acinar gland has secretory cells  that form a dilated sac.    . Contrast the merocrine and holocrine methods of secretion, and name a gland product produced by each  method. Merocrine is within a cell and secrets out, in holocrine the cell bursts and secrets its product and then is a dead cell.    . Describe the differences between a mucous and a serous membrane. Serous membrane: Lines a body cavity that does not open to the exterior.  Mucous membrane: Lines a body cavity that does open to the exterior. 


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