Comm 2020 Chapter 6
Comm 2020 Chapter 6 Comm 2020
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rae Britton on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 2020 at East Carolina University taught by Eric Shouse in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Speech Communication in Communication at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
CHAPTER 6 2/9/16 The speaking environment When you think of great speeches it’s common to think about the person who gave them If you mentioned “I have a dream” you think of Martin Luther King Jr. o He was an incredible speaker but we remember him because of the situation When bitzer says that rhetoric is situational, what he means is that it is created for pragmatic reasons- to get something done There are three key elements to any rhetorical situation o Exigence . Bitzer defines an exigence as, “an imperfection marked by urgency.” It is a problem. Something is not right in the world, and the speaker thinks that if they say something about it, they can make the problem go away, or at least make things better. Not all problems can be solved by rhetoric In many situations there may be many exigencies, but there is always one controlling exigency o Audience. Every rhetorical situation has an audience. The audience is only people who are capable of listening and being mediators of change. Tell people what they want to hear! o Constraints. These are the persons, events, objects and relations which can constrain the decision and action needed to remove the exigence. They often include: beliefs, attitudes, documents, facts, images, interests, and motives. Two classes of constraints - What Aristotle called “artistic proofs”-things that fan be managed by the speaker “Inartistic proofs”- things outside the speakers control (people talking, gloomy weather...) After 9/11… We want justice: we wanted to know that people were responsible We want security: wouldn’t happen again We wanted to know that the economy was ok: attacked world trade center Bush had a 90% approval rating after 9/11 because he said the right thing to the right audience at the right time George bush painted a clear picture of a positive future at a time when people were very uncertain about the future of our country. This is what great leaders do. Was he a great public speaker? No… If you can take people who are uncertain about their future and paint a clear vision of positive future they will see you as a good leader ELLEN What is: in an apartment with fleas, why god? What could be: became comedy bit that got me on tonight show What is: I lost my tv show and my career was severely damaged What could be: I learned that being true to myself was what really mattered and found success again while being honest about who I am Group presentation Two approaches that good group presentations take : o Moderator approach: one person previews the entire presentation by explaining the topic and telling the audience what each speaker will discuss o Bookend approach: one person not only introduces the speech, but provides summary at the end. Provides psychological closure for the audience. REMEMBER TO PRACTICE AS A GROUP!!!! SMALL ROOM: o you won’t need microphone and you might seriously want to consider doing without visual aids. More interaction. Expect adlib LARGER THE ROOM… o More likely the speaker will stick closely to a script o harder to keep everyone’s attention. o More hecklers Heckler: someone who interrupts a speakers presentation (pg 131) o Ignore them !!!
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