BIOL 5600 Notes 2/10/16
BIOL 5600 Notes 2/10/16 BIOL 5600
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by LaurenC on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 5600 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Mendonća in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Biomedical physiology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Biomedical Physiology 21016 Support cells/ neuroglia cells continued Recap: Schwann cells: myelinate processes The collection of white myelinated processes are called nerves (PNS) / tracts (CNS) The tracts start in the brain and come down the spinal column Unmyelinated parts are the dendrites of multipolar neurons, cell bodies, and short axons –Grey areas are usually synapse points Axons are very short, and don’t need myelin In CNS, grey matter is called _____ In PNS, grey matter is called ganglia Myelination is important to speed of transmission Saltatory conduction (jumping of signals from node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier) conducts very fast transmission. Multiple sclerosis Autoimmune disease Immune system attacks myelinated Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes The myelin is replaced with scar tissue, which doesn’t conduct correctly The speed of impulse is lost Progressive disease Often fatal Schwann cells can help heal themselves. Can develop regenerative tube. if there is a severing or injury to a nerve process, they release nerve growth factors and mend the gap. This can promote neuron growth. Oligodendrocytes do not secrete nerve growth factors; they actually release nerve inhibitory factors. This affects spinal injuries. Astrocytes Ependymal cell that is found in the CNS Most common glial cell type Provide attachment points to capillaries and other support structures Hold neurons in proper alignment Said to form the blood brain barrier (BBB) Control transport of nutrients into neurons Important in allowing and keeping out certain substances to brain central nervous system EX. Hydrogen ions, toxins, In brain there are cavities called ventricles, all linked together, and eventually linked to the central canal. Opening to ventricles and central canal to outside. Whole CNS is in a “bag” called the meninges. Inside the ventricles and central canal, there is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Ependymal cells Line surfaces of ventricles and central canal Cuboidal cells Ciliated On the distal point of the cell there are cilia Help make CSF, which yields protection Circulates the CSF with cilia Research says… possible source of neuronal stem cells. Important to regeneration of neural tissue. Meninges Protection against shock to head Holds weight of CSF Microglia cells Derived immune cells Come from special monocytes (modified monocytes) In and move around the CNS like white blood cells Phagocytic Protect against microbes Breakdown and clear debris such as old dead cells Nerves, dorsal and ventral roots are part of the PNS The central gray is the butterfly looking structure Collection of nuclei (synapse points) Around the central gray is white matter (tracts) There are ascending tracts and descending tracts, information coming in and out The afferent sensory input information always goes in the dorsal root. The dorsal root has the afferent neurons in it. The ventral root is where the motor output efferent information goes. The interneurons are the connectors –interneurons start and end in the CNS Vast majority are polysynaptic There are monosynaptic connections that are rare Monosynaptic means sensory info comes in and directly synapses with something that goes out Response is loosely termed reflex
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