1 Week of Notes
1 Week of Notes PSY 1410
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Johnson on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1410 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Corey M Teague in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Chapter 4 Consciousness (9/30/13) Lecture Consciousness – moment- to-moment awareness of ourselves and our environment. Levels Of Consciousness Conscious – any stimuli we’re aware of at any given moment. Preconscious – mental activity that’s outside of awareness, but can easily be brought into current awareness. Unconscious – mental events that can’t be brought into conscious awareness under normal circumstances. Also known as subconscious. You have to be taken away from normal circumstances (take them back to the scene of the crime). Things that take place outside of awareness. Selective and Divided Attention Selective Attention – selecting a particular stimulus to attend to; sometimes takes much effort (mental processing). It takes more effort if we are receiving information that is new. Divided Attention – dividing attention among several stimuli. Other times require little conscious effort (automatic processing). Altered States of Consciousness Cognitive processes sloppy, things are seen as uncritical, & we become careless. Changes in perceptions of ourselves, others, and environment. Normal inhibitions/self-control may weaken. 1. Daydreaming – focus is on internal events. Helpful in: providing escape from unpleasant / boring situations and preparing for future events. 2. Sleep a. sleep patterns vary by developmental level. b. Reasons for sleep i. Restorative Function – helps body restore body tissues; aids in growth/memory consolidation. ii. Adaptive Function (evolutionary model) – “pass the time” until daylight which allowed for hunting/gathering c. Stages of Sleep i. EEG – electroencephalogram – measures brain wave activity. Beta waves, Alpha waves, Theta waves, and Delta waves – progressively larger and slower waves. Larger and slower the waves, slower the brain activity and deeper the sleep. 1. Stage 1 – lightest sleep – just starting to “nod off,” Alpha waves. 2. Stage 2 – muscles more relaxed, breathing/heart rate slower, harder to awaken; Theta waves 3. Stage 3 – transitional stage from light to deep sleep; Delta waves 4. Stage 4 – deepest sleep; almost pure Delta wave activity i. 30-40 minutes to progress from stages 1-4; spend 30 minutes in 4 before going back to 3, 2 and REM j. Rapid Eye Movement(REM) – relatively light sleep; Alpha waves k. eyes moving rapidly beneath closed eyelids. Long dreams occur during REM sleep. Increases in heart rate/blood pressure, genital arousal (not due o sexual imagery) l. Typical night’s sleep: 4-6 cycles of 1-2-3-4-3-2-REM. REM gets longer with each cycle. Deepest sleep during first ½ of night. Each cycle – 90 minutes. Sleep Disorders Insomnia – difficulty falling/remaining asleep. Narcolepsy – occurs during day; falling asleep without warning for brief periods of time. Sleep apnea – person stops breathing for 10 seconds – 2 minutes. Obstruction in upper airway – sagging tissue Nightmare – frightening dreams during REM sleep; story-like. Night Terrors – horrific dream images. Occur during stage 4. Sleep Deprivation- affects mood (e.g., irritability), cognitive process (e.g., forgetful), and physical performance (e.g., clumsiness). World record – Randy Gardner – 11 days without sleep. Usually takes several days to recover; don’t make up all sleep time lost. Dreaming - visual images predominant; symbolization; high emotional quality. Lucid Dreaming – awareness that you are dreaming despite fact you’re asleep. Theories of Dreaming 1. Freud – dreams disguised form of wish fulfillment. Manifest & latent content. Death symbolizes the end of something, if you see a baby in the dream it is always you. 2. Activation-Synthesis Theory – brain stem bombards cerebral cortex with random neural activity (activation); neural activity doesn’t match external sensory events; cerebral cortex attempts to interpret activity by creating dream that provides “best fit” to particular pattern of activation. 3. Problem-Solving Model – dreams help us find solutions to problems/conflicts because they aren’t constrained by reality.
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