PSYC 250 Chapter 1 Notes
PSYC 250 Chapter 1 Notes Psych 250
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Pfeffer on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 250 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Andre Kehn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 192 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Dakota.
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The Science of Human Development ● Seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time Why Study Development ● Raising Children ○ Be a good parent right from wrong ○ Emotional distress ○ Anger ● Choosing Social Policies ○ allocation of funds ○ Children’s testimonies ○ Memory NatureNurture Debate ● Nature ○ General term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of CONCEPTION eye color, sex ● Nurture ○ General term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived home, school, beliefs LifeSpan Perspective ● Approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood Defining Development ● Growth is: ○ Multidirectional ○ Multicontextual ○ Multicultural ○ Multidisciplinary ○ Plastic ● Development is Multidirectional ○ Critical Period ■ Time when particular developmental growth (body/behavior) must happen if it’s ever going to happen ○ Sensitive Period ■ time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen or happens most easily, although, it may still happen later with more difficulty ● Development is Multicontextual ○ Ecological systems Approach ■ Person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life ● Bronfenbrenner ● Each person is affected by many social contexts and interpersonal interactions ● 3 Nested Levels surround individual and affect them ● Approach later called bioecological theory ■ Person → Microsystem → Mesosystem → Exosystem → Macrosystem → Chronosystem ■ Chronosystem: Changing conditions, personal, and societal, over the lifespan ● Cohort: Persons born within few years of one another; group defined by shared age of its members ○ Ex. Attitudes about same sex marriage ● Socioeconomic Context ○ Influenced by national and historical texts ○ More critical in some jurisdictions than others ○ Includes pervasive context of SES ○ SES: Socioeconomic Status ■ Person’s position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence ● Development is Multicultural ○ Culture: Patterns of behavior passed from one generation to the next ○ Social Construction ■ Idea based on shared perception, not on objective reality ■ Mage agerelated terms, such as childhood, adolescence, yuppie, and senior citizen, are social constructions ○ Differenceequalsdeficit Error ■ Mistaken belief that deviation from same norm is necessarily inferior to others that meet the standard ○ Vygotsky: Guided Participation ■ Universal process used by mentors to teach cultural knowledge, skills, and habits ■ Can occur through school instruction, but more often it happens informally ■ Entails culturally different goals ○ Ethnic Group ■ Ancestors born in same region and share language, culture, and religion ○ Race ■ Distinct from other group on basis of physical appearance ● Development is Multidisciplinary ○ All important human characteristics are epigenetic ■ Referring to effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individual’s or a species’, genetic inheritance ○ Some epigenetic influences hinder development; others facilitate it ● Multidisciplinary research on depressions ○ Depressions ■ Partly genetic, biochemical, and neurological ■ Leads to better treatment ■ Broadens and deepens the scientific perspective ● Development is Plastic ○ Plasticity denotes two complementary aspects of development ■ Human traits can be molded ■ Durability of identity ○ Dynamic Systems: Human development is viewed as an ongoing, everchanging interaction ■ Physical and emotional being ■ The person and every aspect of their environment Understanding How and Why ● Scientific Method ○ Way to answer questions that we have ■ Requires empirical research and databased conclusions ● 5 basic steps of the scientific method ○ Curiosity and pose a question ○ Develop a hypothesis ○ Test the hypothesis ○ Draw conclusions ○ Report the results ● Replication: Repetition of a study, using different participants Process, Not Proof ● Built into Scientific Method in questions, hypotheses, tests, and replication is a passion for possibilities, especially unexpected ones Using the SM ● Scientific Observation ○ Researcher records behavior systematically and objectively ○ Naturalistic or laboratory environment Reliability ● The degree to which individual measurements of a given behavior are consistent ○ Interrater Reliability (biase watch something) ○ TestRetest Reliability (same tests 2 times) Validity ● Refers to the degree to which a test or experiment measures what it is intended to measure ● Researchers strive for 2 types of validity ○ Internal Validity (tests knowledge) (measures what intended) ○ External Validity (laboratory natural world) Cautions From Science ● Correlation and Causation ○ Correlation exists between 2 variables if 1 variable is more (or less) likely to occur when the other does ● Correlations? ○ Ice creams sles and murder rates? ○ Learning to read and shoe size? ● CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION Using SM ● Experiment ○ Cause and effect relationship between 2 variables ● Independent variable: Manipulating ● Dependable variable: Being measured ● Experimental Group VS. Control Group ● The Survey ○ Collection of information from a large number of people ○ Challenges in acquiring information ○ Answers are influenced by the wording and the sequence of the survey questions Studying Development Over The Lifespan ● CrossSectional Research ○ Groups of people of one age compared with people of another age ● Longitudinal ○ Same people repeatedly as they age ● CrossSequential ○ Mixture of two ○ Study different age group over a period of time Ethics in Research ● Why are there ethical concerns for children? ● Risks VS. Benefits ratio ● Protection from harm ● Informed consent ● Debriefing Terms Science of Human Development: The science that seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time Scientific Method: A way to answer questions that requires empirical research and databased conclusions Hypothesis: A specific prediction that can be tested Empirical Evidence: Evidence that is based on observation, experience, or experiment, not theory Nature: A general term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception Nurture: A general term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived LifeSpan Perspective: An approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood Critical Period: A time when a particular type of development growth (in body or behavior) must happen if it is ever going to happen Sensitive Period: A time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen or happens most easily, although it may still happen later with more difficulty. For example, early childhood is considered a sensitive period for language learning EcologicalSystems Approach: The view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life Cohort: A group defined by the shared age of its members, who, because they were born at about the same time, move through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts Socioeconomic Status (SES): A person’s position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence (sometimes called social class) Culture: A system of shared beliefs, norms, behaviors, and expectations that persist over time and prescribe social behavior and assumptions Social Construction: An idea that is based on shared perception, not on objective reality. Many agerelated terms, such as childhood, adolescence, yuppie, and senior citizens, are social constructions Differenceequalsdeficit Error: the mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is necessarily inferior to behavior or characteristics that meet the standard Ethnic Group: People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion Epigenetic: Referring to the effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individual’s, or a species’, genetic inheritance Dynamic Systems: A view of human development as an ongoing, everchanging interaction between the physical, cognitive, and psychological influences. The crucial understanding is that development is never static but is always affected by, and affects, many systems of development Differential Sensitivity: The idea that some people are more vulnerable than others to certain experiences, usually because of genetic differences Scientific Observation: A method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants’ behavior in a systematic and objective manner Experiment: A research method in which the researcher tries to determine the causeandeffect relationship between two variables by manipulating one (called the independent variable) and then observing and recording the ensuing changes in the other (called the dependent variable) Independent Variable: In an experiment, the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable (also called experimental variable) Dependent Variable: In an experiment, the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds. In other words, the dependent variable depends on the independent variable Case Study: An indepth study of one person, usually requiring personal interviews to collect background information and various followup discussion, tests, questionnaires, and so on CrossSectional Research: A research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics Longitudinal Research: A research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed CrossSequential Research: A hybrid research design in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages (a crosssectional approach) and then follow those groups over the years (a longitudinal approach) (also called cohortsequential research or timesequential research) Correlation: A number that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables, expressed in terms of the likelihood that one variable will (or will not) occur when the other variable does (or does not). A correlation indicates only that two variables are related, not that one variable causes the other to occur