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Chapter 2 Notes

by: Emma Pfeffer

Chapter 2 Notes Psych 250

Emma Pfeffer

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Theories of Development
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Andre Kehn
Class Notes
developmental psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Pfeffer on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 250 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Andre Kehn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Dakota.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
Theories of Development  What Theories Do  ● Group of ideas, generalizations, and assumptions that interpret and illuminate the  thousands of observations that have been made about human growth  ● Framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older  ● Produce hypotheses  ● Generate discoveries  ● Offer practical guidance    Grand Theories  ● Theories  ○ Psychoanalytic  ○ Behavioral  ○ Cognitive  ● Characteristics  ○ Comprehensive  ○ Enduring  ○ Widely applied    Sigmund Freud (1856­1939)  ● Basic drives  ● Stage Theory Continuity of individual differences    Structuring Personality  ● Id  ○ Reduce tension caused by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression,  and irrational impulses  ○ “Pleasure Principle”  ● Ego  ○ Part of personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside world  ○ “Reality Principle”  ● Superego  ○ Final personality structure ­ represents rights and wrongs of society handed down  by a persona’s parents, teachers, and other important figures  ○ conscience  ○ “Morality Principle”  ○ Oedipus Complex  ○ Electra Complex: Opposite of Oedipus complex    Erik Erikson’s Theory  ● Successor to Freud  ● Cultural and social influences  ● Psychosocial Development    Current Perspectives  ● Freud’s significant contributions  ○ Early experience and emotional relationships  ○ Subjective experience and unconscious mental activity  ● Erikson’s emphasis on the search for identity in adolescence has had lasting impact  ● Shortcoming  ○ too vague    Grand Theory  ● Three types of learning  ○ Classical: learning occurs through association  ○ Operant: learning occurs through reinforcement  ○ Social: learning occurs through modeling what others do  ● Behaviorism is called learning theory because it emphasizes the learning process    Behaviorism  ● Conditioning  ○ Proposes that learning takes place through processes by which responses  become linked to particular stimuli  ● Learning theory  ○ Focuses on observable behavior  ○ Describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned    Watson’s Behaviorism (1878­1958)  ● Founder of behaviorism  ● Learning through conditioning was the primary mechanism of development  ● Only observe behavior  ○ “Little Albert”  ○ Systematic desensitization  ○ Strict child rearing  ○ Critique: too simplistic    Pavlov  ● Classical conditioning  ○ Association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring  stimulus  ○ Respondent conditioning  ● received Nobel Peace Prize for digestion in dogs    Operant Conditioning  ● Reinforcement/punishment used to either increase or decrease the probability that a  behavior will occur again to the future  ○ Also called instrumental learning  ● Skinner (1904­1990)  ○ Agreed with Watson  ○ Best known for experiments with rats, pigeons, and his own daughter    Bandura’s Research  ● Social Learning Theory  ● Bobo doll    Jean Piaget (1896­1980)  ● Domain general approach  ● children are seen as:  ○ Active scientists  ○ Learning many important lessons on their own  ○ Intrinsically motivated to learn  ● Cognitive Theory  ● Assimilation  ○ Experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas  ● Accommodation  ○ Old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences  ● Cognitive Theory  ○ Cognitive equilibrium  ○ State of mental balance, no confusion  ■ New ideas through past ideas interpreted  ■ Needed for intellectual advancement  ○ Easy equilibrium not always possible  ■ If new experience is not understandable, cognitive disequilibrium can  occur    Grand Theories  ● Information processing theory  ○ Newer version of Cognitive Theory  ● Comparing Grand Theories  ○ Criticism  ■ Many psychologists reject psychoanalytic theory as unscientific  ■ Deeming to human potential    Newer Theories  ● Most closely tied to current views of science of development  ● Sociocultural Theory  ○ Focus on culture as integral to a person’s developmental   ● Lev Vygotsky (1896­1934)  ○ Describes interaction between culture and education  ○ Developmental concepts of apprenticeship in thinking and guided participation  ● Zone of Proximal Development  ○ Skills/knowledge cannot master without help  ● Process of Joint Construction  ○ New knowledge obtained through mentoring    Universal Perspective  ● Humanism  ○ All people have the same basic needs regardless  ● Abraham Maslow  ○ Founder of Humanism  ○ Arranged human needs by hierarchy  ● Evolutionary Theory  ○ Suggests humans have two basic drives survival and reproduction  ○ Proposes concept of selective adaptation    What Theories Contribute  ● Psychoanalytic: Childhood behaviors affect you as an adult  ● Behaviorism: Behaviors can be learned and unlearned  ● Cognitive Theories: How we think about things when young VS. old  ● Sociocultural Theories: consider surroundings  ● Universal Theories: Big theories that are broad  ● Eclectic Perspective  ○ Taken by most developmentalists  ○ Occurs when aspects of various theories of development are selectively applied,  rather than adhering exclusively to one theory  ○ Helps guard against bias and facilitates open­mindedness to alternative  explanations for complexity of human life      Terms    Developmental Theory:​  A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and  illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth. A  developmental theory provides a framework for explaining the patterns and problems of  development    Norm:​ An average, or standard, measurement, calculated from the measurements of many  individuals within a specific group or population    Psychoanalytic Theory:​  A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational,  unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior    Behaviorism:​ A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior.  Behaviorism is also callelearning theorbecause it describes the laws and processes by  which behavior is learned.    Conditioning:​ According to behaviorism, the processes by which responses become linked to  particular stimuli and learning takes place. The conditionin​is used to emphasize the  importance of repeated practice, as when an athle​ondition his or her body to perform well  by training for a long time    Classical Conditioning: The learning process in which a meaningful stimulus (such as the  smell of food to a hungry animal) is connected with a neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a  tone) that had no special meaning before conditioning. (Also caespondent conditioning​    Operant Conditioning:​ The learning process by which a particular action is followed by  something desired (which makes the person or animal more likely to repeat the action) or by  something unwanted (which makes the action less likely to be repeated). (Also called  instrumental conditioni​ )   Reinforcement:​ The process by which a behavior is followed by something desired, such as  food for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile for a lonely person    Social Learning Theory:​ An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other  people have over a person’s behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual  learns many things through observation and imitation of other people.    Modeling:​ The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actions of  others and then copies them. (Modeling is also cal​bservational learnin )   Cognitive Theory:​ A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how  people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and  behaviors    Cognitive Equilibrium: In cognitive theory, a state of mental balance in which people are not  confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current  experiences and ideas    Assimilation: The reinterpretation of new experiences to fit into old ideas    Accommodation:​  The restructuring of old ideas to include new experiences    Information­Processing Theory:  A perspective that compare human thinking processes, by  analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories,  and output    Sociocultural Theory:​  A newer theory that holds that development results from the dynamic  interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces    Guided Participation:​  The process by which people learn from others who guide their  experiences and explorations    Humanism:​  A theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all  people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background    Selective Adaptation:​  The process by which living creatures (including people) adjust to their  environment. Genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected, over the  generations, to become more prevalent    Eclectic Perspective:​  The approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply  aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one  theory      Notes from Dr. Kehn and terms are from ​ The Developing Person  ​Through the Lifespan  9th Edition textbook. 


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