Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 2 Notes Psych 250
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Pfeffer on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 250 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Andre Kehn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Theories of Development What Theories Do ● Group of ideas, generalizations, and assumptions that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth ● Framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older ● Produce hypotheses ● Generate discoveries ● Offer practical guidance Grand Theories ● Theories ○ Psychoanalytic ○ Behavioral ○ Cognitive ● Characteristics ○ Comprehensive ○ Enduring ○ Widely applied Sigmund Freud (18561939) ● Basic drives ● Stage Theory Continuity of individual differences Structuring Personality ● Id ○ Reduce tension caused by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses ○ “Pleasure Principle” ● Ego ○ Part of personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside world ○ “Reality Principle” ● Superego ○ Final personality structure represents rights and wrongs of society handed down by a persona’s parents, teachers, and other important figures ○ conscience ○ “Morality Principle” ○ Oedipus Complex ○ Electra Complex: Opposite of Oedipus complex Erik Erikson’s Theory ● Successor to Freud ● Cultural and social influences ● Psychosocial Development Current Perspectives ● Freud’s significant contributions ○ Early experience and emotional relationships ○ Subjective experience and unconscious mental activity ● Erikson’s emphasis on the search for identity in adolescence has had lasting impact ● Shortcoming ○ too vague Grand Theory ● Three types of learning ○ Classical: learning occurs through association ○ Operant: learning occurs through reinforcement ○ Social: learning occurs through modeling what others do ● Behaviorism is called learning theory because it emphasizes the learning process Behaviorism ● Conditioning ○ Proposes that learning takes place through processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli ● Learning theory ○ Focuses on observable behavior ○ Describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned Watson’s Behaviorism (18781958) ● Founder of behaviorism ● Learning through conditioning was the primary mechanism of development ● Only observe behavior ○ “Little Albert” ○ Systematic desensitization ○ Strict child rearing ○ Critique: too simplistic Pavlov ● Classical conditioning ○ Association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus ○ Respondent conditioning ● received Nobel Peace Prize for digestion in dogs Operant Conditioning ● Reinforcement/punishment used to either increase or decrease the probability that a behavior will occur again to the future ○ Also called instrumental learning ● Skinner (19041990) ○ Agreed with Watson ○ Best known for experiments with rats, pigeons, and his own daughter Bandura’s Research ● Social Learning Theory ● Bobo doll Jean Piaget (18961980) ● Domain general approach ● children are seen as: ○ Active scientists ○ Learning many important lessons on their own ○ Intrinsically motivated to learn ● Cognitive Theory ● Assimilation ○ Experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas ● Accommodation ○ Old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences ● Cognitive Theory ○ Cognitive equilibrium ○ State of mental balance, no confusion ■ New ideas through past ideas interpreted ■ Needed for intellectual advancement ○ Easy equilibrium not always possible ■ If new experience is not understandable, cognitive disequilibrium can occur Grand Theories ● Information processing theory ○ Newer version of Cognitive Theory ● Comparing Grand Theories ○ Criticism ■ Many psychologists reject psychoanalytic theory as unscientific ■ Deeming to human potential Newer Theories ● Most closely tied to current views of science of development ● Sociocultural Theory ○ Focus on culture as integral to a person’s developmental ● Lev Vygotsky (18961934) ○ Describes interaction between culture and education ○ Developmental concepts of apprenticeship in thinking and guided participation ● Zone of Proximal Development ○ Skills/knowledge cannot master without help ● Process of Joint Construction ○ New knowledge obtained through mentoring Universal Perspective ● Humanism ○ All people have the same basic needs regardless ● Abraham Maslow ○ Founder of Humanism ○ Arranged human needs by hierarchy ● Evolutionary Theory ○ Suggests humans have two basic drives survival and reproduction ○ Proposes concept of selective adaptation What Theories Contribute ● Psychoanalytic: Childhood behaviors affect you as an adult ● Behaviorism: Behaviors can be learned and unlearned ● Cognitive Theories: How we think about things when young VS. old ● Sociocultural Theories: consider surroundings ● Universal Theories: Big theories that are broad ● Eclectic Perspective ○ Taken by most developmentalists ○ Occurs when aspects of various theories of development are selectively applied, rather than adhering exclusively to one theory ○ Helps guard against bias and facilitates openmindedness to alternative explanations for complexity of human life Terms Developmental Theory: A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth. A developmental theory provides a framework for explaining the patterns and problems of development Norm: An average, or standard, measurement, calculated from the measurements of many individuals within a specific group or population Psychoanalytic Theory: A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior Behaviorism: A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. Behaviorism is also callelearning theorbecause it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned. Conditioning: According to behaviorism, the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place. The conditioninis used to emphasize the importance of repeated practice, as when an athleondition his or her body to perform well by training for a long time Classical Conditioning: The learning process in which a meaningful stimulus (such as the smell of food to a hungry animal) is connected with a neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a tone) that had no special meaning before conditioning. (Also caespondent conditioning Operant Conditioning: The learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired (which makes the person or animal more likely to repeat the action) or by something unwanted (which makes the action less likely to be repeated). (Also called instrumental conditioni ) Reinforcement: The process by which a behavior is followed by something desired, such as food for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile for a lonely person Social Learning Theory: An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people. Modeling: The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them. (Modeling is also calbservational learnin ) Cognitive Theory: A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors Cognitive Equilibrium: In cognitive theory, a state of mental balance in which people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas Assimilation: The reinterpretation of new experiences to fit into old ideas Accommodation: The restructuring of old ideas to include new experiences InformationProcessing Theory: A perspective that compare human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output Sociocultural Theory: A newer theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces Guided Participation: The process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations Humanism: A theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background Selective Adaptation: The process by which living creatures (including people) adjust to their environment. Genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected, over the generations, to become more prevalent Eclectic Perspective: The approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory Notes from Dr. Kehn and terms are from The Developing Person Through the Lifespan 9th Edition textbook.
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