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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Pfeffer on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 250 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Andre Kehn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Hereditary and Environment Is There Really A Debate? ● Nature and Nurture, not Nature VS. Nurture What Genes Are ● DNA ○ Molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins ○ Promotes growth and sustains life ● Protein ○ Contains sequence of chemicals consisting of long strings of amino acids ● Chromosomes ○ Molecules of DNA ○ Consists of 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs ● Overall ○ Many genes are identical for every human being ○ Some genes vary slightly in their codes from 1 person to another ● Allele ○ Variation of a gene or any of the possible forms in which a gene for a particular trait can occur ○ Effects of variations vary greatly from causing lifethreatening conditions to having no detectable effect at all ● Genetic Diversity ○ Distinguishes each person ○ Allows human species to adapt to pressures of the environment ● Genome ○ Involves the full set of genes Beginnings of Life ● Two gametes: sperm and egg Male or Female? ● Human have 46 chromosomes normally ○ Female: XX ○ Male: XY ● Zygote begins duplicating and division and differentiation and specialization (change from stem cells) ● At birth, zygote becomes 10 trillion cells ○ Each cell carries complete copy of DNA Matching Genes: Genotype to Phenotype ● Genotype: DNA is unique to each organism ● Phenotype: Observable characteristics (based on DNA) ● Polygenic: Traits are influenced by many genes Siblings and Twins ● Monozygotic (identical twins) ○ 1 zygote that splits apart very early in development ○ Same genotype but slight variations in phenotype are possible due to environmental influences ● Dizygotic (fraternal twins) ○ Fertilization of 2 separate ova by 2 separate sperm ○ 50% of genetic material ○ Twice as likely as monozygotic Assisted Reproduction ● In vitro fertilization (IVF) ● Assisted reproductive technology (ART) ● Involves fertilization that takes place outside a woman’s body ● Involves mixing sperm with surgically removed ova from the woman’s ovary and implanting zygote into uterus GeneGene Interatcions ● Human Genome Project ○ International effort to map entirety of human genetic code ○ Completed in 2001, through analysis is ongoing ● Interesting Findings ○ Humans have fewer genes than believed ○ All living creatures share many genes ● Additive Genes ○ Genes that add something to some aspect of the phenotype ○ Effects add up to make the phenotype DominantRecessive Hereditary ● Dominant gene is more influential than recessive ● Dominant can completely control phenotype ● Recessive genes can sometimes be noticed ● Carrier ○ Person who is heterozygous ■ Offspring can either have dominant or recessive trait ● XLinked: Gene carried on the X chromosome (color blindness) More Complications ● Copy Number Variations ○ Occur in abundance ○ Various repeats or detections of base pairs ○ Lethal, non lethal, or in between ● Parental Imprinting ○ Occurs when genes from mother/father are affected ○ Differ from XX or XY embryos Genotype and Phenotype ● Current Consensus ○ Genes affect every aspect of behavior ○ Environmental influences within same home are not shared ○ Genes elicit responses that shape development ○ People choose friends/environments that encourage their genetic dispositions ● Alcoholism ○ Genes create addictive pull ○ Alcoholism is polygenic and culture is pivotal ● Risk ○ Biological sex ○ Gender ○ Contexts ○ Ethnicity ● Alcoholism probably has a genetic basis ● Genes can cause an overpowering addictive pull in some people ● Environmental conditions can modify the genetic effects ● Nature and Nurture combine to create an alcoholic ● Nearsightedness ○ Age: Change in eyeball shape ○ Genes: Alleles of Pax6 contribute to nearsighted ○ Heritability: Heritability of 90% ■ 90% is related to genetic makeup ○ Other Causes ■ Environment ■ Homework and lack of play Heritability ● Statistical term that indicates what portion of the variation in a particular trait within a particular population is inherited ● Environment can affect the expression of inherited genes Chromosomal and Genetic Problems ● Down Syndrome ○ Trisomy 21: 3 copies of chromosome 21 ○ Involves around 300 characteristics; unique individuals ● 1 in 1900: 1 in 280 after 35 ● After 40: ○ Lower chance of being pregnant naturally ○ High blood pressure, diabetes ○ Higher risk of small birthweight/underdeveloped lungs Why Study Additive or Subtractive Conditions? ● Provide insight into complexities of nature and nurture ● Knowing origins help limit their effects ● Information combat prejudice: Difference is not always deficit Phenylketonuria (PKU) ● Unable to metabolize amino acids found in many foods ● Buildup of phenylalanine causes brain damage, progressive mental retardation, and other symptoms ● Early diagnosis: Phenylalanine free diet Genetic Counseling ● Consultation and testing by trained professionals ● Learn more that may be passed on Ethical Guidelines ● Test results are kept confidential ● Further decisions made by the client Terms Gamete: A reproductive cell; that is, a sperm or ovum that can produce a new individual if it combines with a gamete from the other sex to make a zygote Zygote: The single cell formed from the union of two gametes, a sperm and an ovum Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): The chemical composition of the molecules that contain the genes, which are the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins Chromosome: One of the 46 molecules of DNA (in 23 pairs) that virtually each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all the genes. Other species have more or fewer chromosomes Gene: A small section of a chromosome; the basic unit for the transmission of heredity. A gene consists of a string of chemicals that provide instructions for the cell to manufacture certain proteins Allele: A variation that makes a gene different in some way from other genes for the same characteristics. Many genes never vary; others have several possible alleles. Genome: The full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species Genotype: An organism’s entire genetic inheritance, or genetic potential Homozygous: Referring to two genes of one pair that are exactly the same in every letter of their code. Most gene pairs are homozygous Heterozygous: Referring to two genes of one pair that differ in some way. Typically one allele has only a few base pairs that differ from the other member of the pair 23rd Pair: The chromosome pair that, in humans, determines sex. The other 22 pairs are autosomes, inherited equally by males and females Notes from Dr. Kehn and terms are from The Developing Person Through the Lifespan 9th Edition textbook.
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