World Civ 1 Honors
World Civ 1 Honors HIST 1110
University of Memphis
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1110 at University of Memphis taught by ramsey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see World Civilization I Honors in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Chapter 4 Mesoamerica, South America, Oceania Origins of Mesoamerican Societies ● Migration across Bering Strait (land bridge) ■ Probably around 13,000 BCE, or earlier ● Or by sea from Asia ● By 9500 BCE, humans had reached southernmost tip of South America ● Hunter/gatherer societies ■ Most evolve into agricultural societies (except Plains peoples of the mid- West, Amazonian rainforest, Inuit peoples of Alaska) Olmecs ● 1200-100 BCE ● The “Rubber People” ● Ceremonial centers ■ San Lorenzo, La Venta, Tres Zapotes ● Olmec Heads (rulers) ■ Up to 10 ft tall, 20 tons (basalt) ■ Transported by dragging, rolling on logs ■ 1000 workers per head Agriculture and Herding ● Staple: maize ● Herding: turkeys, barkless dogs ■ Both raised for food ● No draft animals (no horses or cattle) ■ No development of wheeled vehicles (carts or chariots) Olmec Society ● Probably authoritarian in nature; strong kingship ● Large class of conscripted laborers to construct ceremonial sites ■ Also, tombs for rulers, temples, pyramids, drainage systems Mysterious Decline of Olmecs ● Ceremonial centers destroyed ● No evidence of warfare ● Revolution? ● Civil war? Maya ● Huge cities discovered in the 19 century (CE): 1800s ● 300 BCE-900 CE ● Terrace farming ● Cultivation of cacao beans ■ Hot chocolate (cocoa) ■ Currency ● Major ceremonial center at Tikal Mayan Warfare ● Warfare for purposes of capturing enemy soldiers ● Ritual sacrifice of enemies ■ Enslavement ■ Small kingdoms engage in constant conflict until Chichén Itzá begins to absorb captured villages ● Some captured prefer death ● Center of a Mayan empire develops Mayan Ritual Calendar ● Complex math ■ Invention of “Zero” ● Calendar of 365.242 days (omission of 17 seconds) ■ Solar calendar of 365 days ■ Ritual calendar of 260 days ● Management of calendar lends authority to priesthood ■ Timing of auspicious moments for agriculture Mayan Language and Religion ● Use of ideographs and a syllable-alphabet ■ Most writings destroyed by Spanish conquerors ■ Deciphering work began in 1960s ● Popol Vuh: Mayan creation myth ● Importance of blood rituals ■ Human sacrifices follow after removing fingers and piercing to allow blood to flow ■ Self-mutilation of genitals, tongues, earlobes by ritual participants (king and immediate royal family; aristocracy) Mayan Ball Game ● Passed down from Olmec ● Ritual form of ball game ● High-ranking captives, prisoners of war were contestants ● Execution of losers immediately after the match ● Ritual bloodletting for the gods City of Teotihuacan ● Located in the highlands of Mexico ● Lakes in area of high elevation ● Village of Teotihuacan, 500 BCE, expands to become massive urban center ■ Important as a ceremonial center ● Extensive trade network, influenced surrounding areas (Mayans) ● Begins to decline c. 650 CE, sacked in middle of 8th century CE (700s), massive library destroyed Andean Societies ● Migration into South America, c. 12,000 BCE ● Climate improves c. 8000 BCE ● Largely cut off from Mesoamerica ● Highly individualized due to geography Andean Geography andAgricultural Specialization ● Highlands: potatoes, alpaca wool, llama meat ● Central valley: maize, beans, squashes ● Coastal region: fish, sweet potatoes, and cotton ● Unified and brought into trade networks by Mochican state Chavian Cult ● New religion in central Andes, 900-300 BCE ● South America, contemporary Peru ■ Little known about particulars of religion ■ Represented by intricate stone carvings The Mochica State ● Valley of the Moche River ● Dominated northern Peru, 300-700 CE ● Distinctive painted pottery survives: depictions of scenes from everyday life and religious, sacrificial motifs ● One of many states in region, none able to consolidate into an empire Oceania (Pacific Islands) ● Prehistoric land bridges, lower seas permit migration (60,000 years ago) ● Spars (projecting beams to prevent capsizing) and rudders for canoes in open-sea travel ● Early hunter-gatherer societies in Australia; remained that way among Aborginal peoples ● Early agriculture developed in New Guinea Spread ofAgriculture and Trade ● Cultivation began in New Guinea with Austronesian migrants (from Indonesia), about 3000 BCE ● Root crops like yams, bananas, and taro, herding pigs, dogs, and chickens ● Migrations of peoples who spoke earlier forms of Malayan, Filipino, Indonesian, Polynesian and Oceanic tongues, designated “Austronesian.” ● By 3000 BCE, Austronesian sea-farers built communities and traded with earlier aboriginal peoples Peopling of the Pacific Islands ● These sea-farers began to canoe to other islands (Solomon, Bismarck, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Easter Islands, Polynesia, New Zealand, and Hawaii), between 1500 BCE and 700 CE ● One branch from Philippines went to islands of Micronesia, while others went west to island of Madagascar from Indonesia. ● Form of government consisted of chiefdoms, established through kinship networks of local aristocracy. ● Often migrated out of population pressure or local conflict Lapita Peoples ● Found throughout Pacific Islands ● Agriculture, animal herding (pigs, dogs, chickens) ● Political organization based on chiefdoms ● Trade over open ocean declines 500 BCE ■ Greater independence of island-based settlements
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