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LAST 170 Week 4 In-Class Notes

by: Stef Antonopoulos

LAST 170 Week 4 In-Class Notes CWL 242

Stef Antonopoulos
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In-Class LAST 170 Notes for week 4 from 2/8 and 2/10.
Lit Europe & the Americas II
Gasyna, G
Class Notes
Latin America, Latin American, Cholo, Mestizo, Indigenous, Indigenous people, mulato, indian, Native American, Colombia, Peru, Haiti, Mexico, notes, In-Class, LAST 170, LAST, history, latino, latina




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stef Antonopoulos on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CWL 242 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Gasyna, G in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Lit Europe & the Americas II in Literature at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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Date Created: 02/10/16
Colonial Period, Part 1  Conceptual tools  ● Colonialism is not merely a thing of the past  ● Despite the colonial systems of exploitation that still shape Latin America today, there  are examples of agency and resistance    Announcements  ● Map Quiz 2: MX, Central America, Caribbean (Greater Antilles) this Friday (Feb. 12)  ● CLACS talk: Thurs. Feb. 11, 12PM 101 ISB  ○ Mayan People  ● i­clicker updates  ○ Wednesday after lecture updated  What We’ve Covered So FAr…  Andean Region  ● Pre­Inca   ● Inca  ● Spanish Arrival  ● Defeat of Incas    Mexico:  ● Mayas  ● Aztecs  ● Conquest of Aztec Empire    Caribbean  ● Taino/Arawak people  ● Hatuey  ● Bartolome de las Casas  1 LAST 170 2/8 Exam 1  ● Cuba as staging point for explorations    Brazil:  ● Tupi­Guarani people  ● Portuguese arrival    Colonial Viceroyalties  ● Mexico/Central America: Viceroyalty of New Spain (1522, Mexico City)  ○ Caribbean: Viceroyalty of New Spain    ● Peru/Andes Region:Viceroyalty of Peru​1942, Lima)    ● BrazilViceroyalty of Braz (1773, Rio de Janeiro)    ● Panama/Colombia/Venezuela/Ecuador: V​iceroyalty of New Granada (1717, Bogotá)     ● Argentina/Paraguay/Uruguay:Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Pl​(1776, Buenos Aires)     Spanish Colonial Institution  ● 15th Century Iberian Peninsula traditions have strong impact    ● High levels of militarization    ● Social stratification  ○ Small ruling elite (nobility) at the time  ○ Large labor pool    ● Economic organization: MERCANTILISM  ○ economic system    Colonial Economic System: Mercantilism (1500s­early 1800s)  1. National Wealth measured by bullion (gold, silver)  2. Favorable balance of trade  a. Greater exports than imports  2 LAST 170 2/8 Exam 1  b. If someone benefits, someone else loses (not everyone wins)  i. BE THE WINNER  3. Sea power  a. Merchant fleets and military power  i. To achieve favorable trade balance→ have strong merchant fleet ships  4. Colonies  a. Important because it helped them maintain the system  b. Colonies provided raw materials for export  c. Provided large labor force  5. Active role of the state    State Control:  ● Prohibited colonial trade with other European powers  ● Limited trade routes  ○ Use of few colonial ports and one peninsular port (Seville) until 1720; then Cadiz    US was not the richest colony during colonial times    Models of Growth in Colonial Era  ● Plantation Society   ● Extraction Economy  Plantation Society  Where?  ● Brazil, Cuba, West Indies, Central America  What?  ● Tendency toward mono­crop farming (sugar, coffee, bananas)  Why?  ● Constraints by climate, efficient  ○ Focused on one crop that grew well  3 LAST 170 2/8 Exam 1  Social Structure  ● Controlled by small agrarian elite of criollo landowners  ● Large labor force: Africans, Indians, mestizos / ladinos  Outcomes:  ● Dependency  ○ Import of other foods and manufactured products  ● Not Sustainable  ○ Boom and bust cycles  ■ One crop (not diversifying)  ■ If problem→ disaster because cannot rely on something else  ● Vast Inequities  ○ Landowning elite get rich, everyone else is poor    The Atlantic Triangular Slave Trade  ● European finished goods to Africa  ● American Raw Materials to Europe  ○ EXAMPLES: Guns, copper, cloth, rum to Africa Enslaved Africans to the  Americas Sugar, cacao, molasses, hemp to Europe  ● Enslaved Africans to the Americans    Emancipation  ● 1838 British territories  ● 1848 French territories  ● 1863 United States  ● 1876 Puerto Rico   ● 1886 Cuba  ● 1888 Brazil    Early Sugar Plantations  ● 1400s  4 LAST 170 2/8 Exam 1  ○ Canary Island (Spain)  ○ Sao Tome (Portugal)  ● Caribbean: 11516 first shipment back to Spain  ● Brazil: 1526 supplying Portugal  Sugarcane  ● 1626 Brazil Supplied most of Europe’s Sugar  ● Haiti and then Cuba become import producers  ● Today Brazil is still the largest producer of sugarcane  Sugar and Slavery  ● Sugar Cane requires much land and manpower  ● Owners got rich  ● Huge wealth disparity  ● Slave life expectancy: 7­15 years  ● 3.5 years to recover cost of slave; so still profitable  ● Other industries remain undeveloped  Beyond Misery  ● Enslaved persons created spaces for religion, music, dance, rituals, etc.  ○ African beliefs  ○ Music traditions from Africa  ■ Exposure to European instruments  ○ Dance  ■ Traditional practices combined with how to manipulate in slave system  ● Runaways­­ quilombos    Legacy of Plantation Societies  Legacies of colonial plantation societies are still strongly felt throughout Latin America (and the  world)  ● Vast inequalities  ● Dependence on mono­crop production for export  ● Financial power largely in foreign interest  ● Dependence on importation of food and manufactured goods  ● Cultural Production  5 LAST 170 2/8 Exam 1  Extraction Economy  Where?  ● Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Mexico  What?  ● Mining of metals (silver & gold especially)  Social Structure  ● Controlled by nobles in the Americas  ● Relied on indigenous labor and some African slaves  Outcome  ● Pillaging of natural resources  ● High Inequalities  Silver Mines  ● 1503­1660 more than 7 million pounds of silver reached Sevilla  ● Production of silver in Americas 10 times more than in Europe  ● 3 Phases:  ○ 1550­1630­ staggering production*  ■ Big boom, mined all out  ○ 1630­1700­stagnation*  ○ 1700­1810­another big boom**     *Production led by Bolivia; **Production led by Mexico  Potosi, Bolivia  ● Potosi mountain, “Cerro Rico”  ● 16,000 ft. above sea level  ● filled with silver (ore contains 40­50% silver)  ● city founded to mine silver  ● Mita Labor Draft (1573)  ○ Promised pope they wouldn’t use as slaves, teach religion  ■ Once discovered so much silver→ draft  ○ 1/7 of 18­50 yr. old males  ○ 13,000 men/year  6 LAST 170 2/8 Exam 1  ○ 1 week on / 2 off  ○ wages less than expenses  ■ Because they needed to relocate  ● Minimal wages  ○ arduous and dangerous  ■ Disease was common  ○ Purpose of mita was to enrich colonial government and spanish colonies    7 LAST 170 2/8 Exam 1  Colonialism, Part 2  Outline  ● Finish on Extraction Economies  ● People/Hierarchies  ● Catholicism in the Colonies  ● Revolts, Rebellions and Revolution  Announcements  ● Map Quiz 2: MX, Central America, Caribbean (Greater Antilles) this Friday (Feb. 12)  ● CLACS talk tomorrow: Thurs. Feb. 11, 12 PM, 101 ISB  Conceptual Tools  ● Colonialism is not merely a thing of the past  ● Despite the colonial’s systems of exploitation that still shape Latin America today, there  are examples of agency and resistance   ● Examples of resistance/persistence/hybridity    Potosi, Bolivia CONTINUED    Mitayos’ revenge:  ● snuch ore out via wives  ● worked for keep on days off  ● used low­quality ore to fulfill quotas; kept high quality ore  ○ Sold low­quality to spanish; High quality for work of own  Legacy of Extraction Societies  Legacies of colonial extraction societies are still strongly felt throughout Latin America (and the  world)  ● Vast inequalities  ● Exploitation of nonrenewable natural resources  ○ Went through the renaissance  ● Control of natural resources still in foreign hands  1 LAST 170 2/10 Exam 1  Decline of the Indigenous Population  ● Cuba  ○ From one million in late 15th century to zero by 1620  ● Mexico  ○ From 10 million or more in 1519 to less than one million in 1620s  ● Peru  ○ From 9 million in 1520 to one million in 1570  ● Violence, disease, racial mixing  Contact, Servitude Resistance  Decline of Indigenous Population­­ Mestizaje  ● Women offered to fortify kinship bonds  ○ servile relationships rather than friendships ensued  ○ hostilities rose  ■ Did not understand, spanish didn’t return the favor  ● Rancheads guaranteed Spaniards Guarani Women  ○ 1546­ majority of children were mestizo  ■ threatened the Guarani communities  ● Felt this way→ violence  ○ Violence and mestizaje les to further revolt  Susnik reading dispelled which popular idea?  That the Guarani and the Spaniards coexisted in peace    Colonial Hierarchies  ● Peninsulares­­ People born in the Iberian Peninsula    ● Criolles­­ American­born offspring of Peninsulares    ● Mestizo/Mulato/Coyote/Lobo/Zambos/Cholos/etx­­ mixed race    ● Indios/Negros­­ Amerindians or Africans/African descendants    2 LAST 170 2/10 Exam 1  Hierarchies: Culture of Rank & Control  Honorable Men  ● Dominant, forceful, unquestioned ruler of household  Honorable Women  ● Saved for marriage  ● lineage; marry well  ● strong sense of shame; submissive to husband/father; faithful    While this culture exists for people regardless of class; class did not influence the degree to  which these norms were followed    Examples:  ● Wealthy woman had more to lose  ● Indian/African women bore heaviest burden as the bottom    Sor Juana’s Complaint:  ● Men push women to submit to their desires, but then shame them for doing so  ● If they don’t submit­­ then they are seen as cold and men feel offended  Catholicism in the Colonies  ● Male­dominated  ● Jesuits­one order of clergy  ○ By 1700’s father strobelt→ spaniards have more control.  ○ Violent, not humble (like indigenous) (Jesuits tried to be more of the people)  ● Religious syncretism  ○ to convert  ○ form of resistance/persistence  ■ On part of indigenous people because they already have traditions  ● Going to incorporate   Religious Syncretism  ● Blending of religious beliefs from 2 or more distinct traditions, hybridity  ○ México­Virgin of Guadalupe and Dia de los muertos (Day of the Dead)  ■ Looks more like the indigenous people, traditional clothing  ● Combo of both  ■ Day of the dead­ create alter, offer food with expectation that they will  come back, not catholic (blending)  3 LAST 170 2/10 Exam 1  ○ Cuba­Santeria  ■ Osune: maps onto the Virgin Mary (Our lady of cherry)  ● Darker skin version of mary  ■ Yamaya  ○ Brazil­Candomble    Which of following are forms of resistance, persistence, or hybridity?  ● Mapuche Textiles  ○ By hand, continue throughout history    Revolts Rebellions and Revolution  Quilombo de Palmares in Alagoas, Brazil, 1605­1694  Tupac Amaru II and Micaela Bastida­­ rebirth of Inca Kings Revolt; 1780­1781    The Haitian Revolution (1791­1804)  ● Extremely wealthy colony  ○ Sugar  ● Influenced by French Revolution (1789)  ● Second independent country in the Americas  ○ Inspired them to do the same as the french  ● First Black Republic  ● Slave revolution turned independant country  ● Haiti’s revolution Also fueled further independence movements    On the Eve of Independence  ● Napoleon’s control of Europe, 1808­1814  ○ King Ferdinand VII  ○ Relocation of Portuguese Monarchy  ○ Queen Maria I    4 LAST 170 2/10 Exam 1 


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