Theatre 152 Week 2 Notes
Theatre 152 Week 2 Notes Theatre 152
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca LeBoeuf on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Theatre 152 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Bryan Vandevender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Non Western Theatre in Theatre at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Week 2: 2/8/2016 + 2/10/2016: ● What is Performance? ○ In its simplest form. performance involves the execution of actions. ○ Question: How does performance differ from everyday actions? ■ Answer: Actions are “doing.” Performing is “showing doing.” ● Elements of Performance: ○ Actor a person who does something. ○ Action a thing done. ○ Audience witnesses to the thing done. ○ Arena place where the thing is done. ○ Arrangement how the thing itself is spatially and temporally arranged. ● Performances differ because of a given performer’s… ○ Objectives (what both the actors and audiences expect, the reasons performances occur). ○ Organization (how actors, audiences, actions, arena,s and internal arrangements of those elements are organized in relationship to one another). ○ Consciousness (the degree to which actors and audiences are conscious of each other and their objectives). ● Schechner’s Continuum: ○ Play Games Sports Pop Entertainments Performing Arts Daily Life Ritual. ○ You read this continuum left to right. ● Typical questions he asks on quizzes: ○ Who wrote it? Who’s the author? ○ Setting? Where does it take place? ○ To what does the title refer? ● Origins Of Theater Ritual And Indigenous Performance: ○ The component parts of theatre seem to have developed in all human societies before recorded history. ○ What are those component parts? (First five words are defined above) ■ Actors. ■ Action. ■ Audience. ■ Arena. ■ Arrangement. ■ Extraordinary Visual Aesthetic marks, makeup, costumes, properties. ■ Extraordinary Aural Aesthetic music, sound effects (sing, chanting, instruments). ■ Extraordinary Physical Gestur dance, movement, acrobatics. ■ Story a narrative told through verbal or visual means. ● All of these component pieces aid in the expressionimetic instinc . ● Mimesis derives from the Ancient Greek term meaning to imitate. ○ Described by Plato (The Republic) and Aristotle (The Poetics). ○ Carries a wide range of meaning including: ■ Representation. ■ Mimicry. ■ The act of resembling. ■ The act of expression. ■ The presentation of self. ● Mimetic Instinc A compulsion to imitate or represent nature and human behavior often through art, literature, or performance. ● Evidence: ○ Prehistoric cave drawing discovered in France. This image (which could depict a horned god or man disguised as animal) is believed to be over 16,000 years old. ○ A bone flute, discovered in a cave in Southwest Germany. ○ A cave painting, discovered in India. ○ An Egyptian tomb sculpture ● Surviving Traditions: ○ Storytellin: ■ Tales of Gods, Heroes, and Natural Forces. ■ Practice that is found in all cultures. ○ Commemorative Ritual Dramas: ■ Rabinal Achi (Mayan) c. 3000 BCE to present. ■ Jaguar Dance (Brazil). ■ Ceremonial Dance (West Africa) healing ceremony and celebration ceremony. ■ Buffalo Dance (North American Indigenous Nations): in a celebration of Thanksgiving, a tribal hunter takes on the spirit of the buffalo. ■ OKEEPAH Ceremony Of The Mandan: retelling of the history of the madan people from creation to the present. ■ Sun Dance (North American Indigenous Nations): celebration of life/death continuity, regeneration. Involves dancing, singing, drumming, visions, fasting, and selftorture. ● What Do These Prehistoric Theatrical Performances Share? ○ All represent a mimetic practice.ALl contain performers, audience, story. ○ Al contain music, dance, costumes, makeup, and masks. ○ All contain an element of aesthetic pleasureentertainment. ○ Primary purpose appears to be cultural/social: to heal, celebrate, commemorate, mourn, worship. ○ Close association with religious belief and practicegenerally polytheistic/pantheistic religions. ○ No association with business/commerce. ○ Primarily oral traditionno written scripts. ● Written Communication: ○ Sumerian and Egyptian. ■ First written document of dramatic performance: ● Ikhernofret Stone(Abydos Passion Play; 1868 BCE). ● Dramatizing Osiris’s death and resurrection. ■ Threshing Floor (Bassae, Greece). ● Theatre Of Ancient Greece: ○ (6th4th C. BCE) a coalition of citys: Athens (philosophers), Sparta (warriors), and Corinth. ○ Classical Greek Values: ■ Polytheistic society. ■ Gods exist in man’s image. ■ Dynamic relationship between man and Gods, as well as man and fate. ■ Limited democracy: ● extending to everyone except for women and slaves. ■ Maledominated/patriarchal. ○ The Olympics (776 BCE): ■ Something the Greek culture gave us. ■ Only men were allowed to compete. ■ There were only a select few of sports allowed at this time. ● Discus thrower ● Javelin thrower. ○ Athen Rules: ■ Develops one of the world’s most influential cultures. ■ Host most of the religious festivals. ○ Origins of Greek Theatre: ■ The Greeks developed music, storytelling, ritual performances, etc. ○ Dithyrambs, 7th Century BCE: ■ Presented in honor of the gionysus (Bacchus). ● God of wine, fertility, religious ecstasy. ● Associated with satyrs, centaurs, serpents, bulls, grapes, ivy, etc. ● Performed by male choruses. ● Hymns to Dionysus with an improvised story. ● Developed into a literary form by the poet Arion. ■ Dionysia Festival: ● Peisistratus instituted dramatic contests at the City of Dionysia Festival in Athens. ○ 6th century BCE. ○ Annual spring festival. ○ Lasted several days. ○ In worship of Dionysus. ○ Competitive contests. ○ Supported by the state and wealthy citizens. ○ Sacred performances (noncommercial). ● First recorded winne:hespis(534 BCE). ■ Greek Theatre of the Classic Era, 5th C. BCE: ● Primarily based in Athens. ■ Dramatic Literature: ● Major sources for plays: the epic poetry of Homer and historical events. ● 4 major playwrights. ● 43 extent plays. ■ Tragedies (there are 34 of them): ● Aeschylus, 7 (Oresteia). ● Sophocles, 7 (Oedipus). ● Euripides, 18 (Medea). ■ Comedies (there are 11 of them): ● Aristophanes (Lysistrata). ■ Tragedy Defined: ● “Tragedy, then is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete and of a certain magnitude, in a language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish catharsis of such emotions” Aristotle, The Poetics. ● Aristotle’s Poetics (4th C. BCE). ○ Six Elements of Tragedy: ■ Plot (mythos): ● Structure of incidents. ■ Character(ethos). ■ Thought (dianoia): ● Spoken reasoning. ■ Dictio(lexis): ● Language. ■ Song (lexis). ■ Spectacle(opsis): ● costumes, scenery, props, masks. ○ Three Unities of Tragedy: ■ Time the story must last exactly 24 hours. ■ Place: the story must only have on setting, one place of action. ■ Action: the story must depict a complete cycle → beginning, middle, and end. ○ Classical Tragedy: ■ The heroes and heroines of classic tragedy tend to be people of high station: kings, queens, princes, princesses, generals, or other members of the nobility. ■ The Word tragedy translategoat song ■ Tragic protagonists (one of or the leading character) generally die, representing a metaphorical/virtual rendering of actual human or animal sacrifice. ○ Tragic Chorus: ■ Tragedy includes a chorus, dialogue written in verse (chanted or sung) and choreographed movement.
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