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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Avi Fox on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 160 at University of Miami taught by Dana Krempels in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see EVOLUTION & BIODIVRSITY in Biology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Theodosius Dobzhansky Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution Evolution is all about context Human in water and shark on land don t work There is no such thing of any species as being the most highly evolved Evolution change over time Organic evolution the genetic and phenotypic physical change of things over time Common misconceptions Evolution isn t the theory of the origin of life Ladder of progress organisms aren t always getting better evolution is directionless Evolution isn t necessarily random Natural selection chooses certain genetic variants Organisms don t try to adapt certain variants are chosen over time that are favorable to fitness Natural selection doesn t give organisms what they need Evolution is just a theory the theory of evolution by natural selection genetic drift Evolution is a theory in crisis the vast majority of scientist believe that evolution happens they just don t agree as to how it happens Gaps in the fossil record things are hard to fossilize Evolution and biodiversity Biodiversity the variety of living species on earth and their differences 12 million known SpeciesOver half of animal species are insects 300000 beetles King Philip Came Over From Germany Stoned Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Eukaryotes have cells with nucleus that contain genetic material and membrane enclosed organelles Prokaryotes single celled organism that lacks membranebound nucleus mitochondria or any other membrane bound organelle Systematics and Taxonomy Taxonomist biologist who names and classifies living things Systematist biologist who studies the evolutionary relationships between living organisms Type material collection of specimens of a single species that was cited in the original published description of that new species Holotype individual member of a species on whose physical description the entire species is based Paratype the unlucky conspecifics in the type collection Conspecifics members of the same species Species Biological definition population or series of population within free gene ow occurs under natural conditions Organisms that reproduce naturally and produce fertile Viable offspring Genetic Variety Genome full DNA sequence of an organism Diploid organisms have 2 copies of their genome in each cell one from each parent Nuclear genome genome in a eukaryotic nucleus usually 2 non identical copies Organelle genome genome in a mitochondria and chloroplast The number of genes in a genome depends on the species between 1000400000 Biodiversity is Disappearing Habitat loss due to destructionfilling in wetlands dredging rivers cutting trees fragmentation bridges dams roads or degradation of habitat pollution invasive species and disruption of habitats Overexploitation over fishing over hunting Introduction of invasive exotic species iguanas lionfish Pollution Climate change organisms that need certain temps to survive 002 in the oceans Why should we care Natural biological control of pest species spraying pesticides kills prey and predator but the prey comes back faster Ecological processes that protect us Source of food and natural products Scientific interest Diverse and complex ecosystems protect their component species Unknown future benefits Genetic diversity Loss of genetic diversity Inbreeding mating between closely related individuals causes loss in genetic diversity it increases the risk of harmful genes to continue to pass on Outbreeding choosing not related individuals more often Causes hemophilia sickle cell anemia Tay Sachs cystic fibrosis The smaller the size of a wild population the more genetically uniform it will be and the more likely there will be inbreeding As a species becomes rare its more likely to undergo inbreeding and express harmful genetic conditions Demonstrated by artificial selection But unfortunately deleterious harmful genes get expressed also Problem with domestication Domesticated corn in the 70 s Viral blight wiped out Zea mays corn crops Biologists found a wild cousin of Zea Mays that was immune to 7 types of corn blights It also had the same amount of chormosomes as Zea Mays and could therefore be hybridized It also helped because viral resistence is a dominant allele and this new one oculd be perennial Anthropocentric View nonhuman species are important only in their benefit to humans Biocentric View Nonhuman species are important to save their own intrinsic value Ecocentric View biodiversity and ecosystems should be preserved not just individual species or populations because it is the whole working system that maintains diversity Ecologically signi cant species Indicator species a plant or animal species that by its presence abundance lack of abundance or chemical composition demonstrates some distinctive aspect of the character or quality of an environment Northern spotted owl it can tell you about the vole population and the mushroom population Keystone species species upon which many other species in an ecosystem rely for their survival Coyote controls population growth When coyotes were taken out bird population plummeted because their predators were allowed to grow Native species one that occurs in the area where it evolved Endemic species only found in one place in the world Hawaiian islands Australia Exotic species a species that was introduced artificially to an area Invasive exotic species exotic species that aggressively displace the native species and have a huge population growth Allelopathic produce toxic compounds that deter growth of competing plants Threatened species still relatively abundant in isolated areas of its former range and likely to become endangered Endangered species few individuals left that extinction is imminent Florida panter is threatened but is not a distinct species but one that didn t exist until human intusion into mountain lion habitat cut the population off from the rest of the species Red wolf was found to be a hybrid between the coyote and a timber wolf Scientific method Ch 22 Descent with modi cation Universe 1020 billion years old Solar system 45 billion years Life 4 billion years Proto hominids 44 million years ago Earliest Homo Sapiens 400000 years ago Homo sapiens sapiens 200000 years Aristotle Scala naturae ladder of increasing complexity Norse creation mythology primal ice and fire in the great void created everything Natural theology up till the 1700 s biology was studied under the notion that science should be dedicated to finding out gods plan Origin of life Spontaneous generation that life started spontaneously from inanimate objects Francesco Redi placed rotting meat in covered and uncovered jars and noted that maggots only in the uncovered jar With mesh covering the maggots appeared on the top Anton Van Leewenhoek invented the microscope showing a microscopic world teeming with life Brought back the idea of spontaneous generation on the smaller scale Georges Buffon curator of the royal garden Proposed that everything arose due to natural processes and that life itself had emerged from the earth John needham tested spontaneous generation with a boiled broth But let it cool and then it grew Lazaro Spallanzai Louis Pasteur using a swan necked ask he showed that boiled broth that was protected from airborne microbes wouldn t grow life Miller urey Stanley miller and urey duplicated the conditions of primordial earth The experiment yielded many of the organic building blocks of life including amino acids sugars and nucleotide bases Most important feature was the lack of Oxygen Oxygen was scarce in early earth if it was there the organic molecules would have fried as the were formed Abiogenesis life must have originated from nonliving matter Alive Be able to reproduce adaptable metabolism cells anatomy homeostasis Individuals adapt populations evolve Organic Evolution Jean Baptiste Lamarck thought organisms could change from generation to generation They changed because they needed things Giraffes evolved from shortnecked antelope and necks stretched to reach higher leaves due to need Use and disuse parts you didn t use would atrophy and become vestigialappendix cecum and used one would become larger stronger and more important Traits acquired during lifetime could be passed on to its offspring was a driving force of evolution Lamarck not completely wrong Epigenetic inheritance repackaging genes you have and changing phenotype when exposed to environmental factors George Cuvier an anatomists father of paleontology Noticed that the organisms in each layer were different Catastrophism A staunch creationist and insisted the signs of change were confirmation of catastrophes They wiped out life locally and new life migrated to the devastated location Mootoo Kimura first to suggest that genetic drift plays a huge role in changing populations and huge part of evolution is completely random chance Neutral theory most of the genetic variation in populations is the result of mutation and genetic drift not selection If a population has many different variations of a gene odds are tat each of these variations is equally good The variations are neutral Genetic drift plays a good role It does NOT suggest That organisms are not adapted to their environments That all morphological variation is neutral That ALL genetic variation is neutral That natural selection is unimportant in shaping genomes The Darwinian Revolution James Hutton Scottish geologist proposed Gradualism large changes in the earth s surface could be caused by slow constant processes such as erosion father of geology Charles Lyell these processes had been going on steadily and constantly which can explain the appearance of the earth Uniformitarianism Darwin used this for natural selection Thomas Malthus religious scholar wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population suggested that humanity s suffering was the result of overpopulation Arti cial selection Wild mustard to make kale cabbage broccoli cauli ower and brussel sprouts Voyage of the beagle 18311836 1844 writes decent with modification Wallace studying in Malaysia came up with natural selection as well On the origin of species 1859 Descent with modification gradual change of one species into another Darwin s observations all species try to reproduce as much as possible but populations maintain a stable size also resources are limited 4 basic tenets for the theory of evolution by means of Natural selection 1 Overproduction organisms are capable of producing huge numbers of offspring 2 Heritable variability Those offspring are variable in appearance and function some of them are heritable 3 Competition resources are limited and those varied offspring must compete 4 Differential reproduction survival and reproduction of the varied offspring isn t random Those who inherited characteristics better suited to leave more offspring Survival of the fittest most misused phrases survival doesn t mean fitness Darwin didn t use it in his first book Fitness is the proportion of genes you leave to your next generation Hebert Spencer using it to describe the dynamics of economics Tautology circular definitionphrase Survival doesn t imply fitness fitness doesn t imply long term survival Adaptive increases the likelihood the individual will leave offspring Maladaptive deleterious decreases the likelihood that the individual will leave offspring Neutral doesn t affect the likelihood Evolutionary fitness is determined by the environment Evolutionary biologists study the processes and mechanisms that lead to evolution Evolution is an observable testable phenomenon Darwin gave a way by which evolution can happen Evolution is observable and testable science isn t only done in the lab they go out and gather info from real world Most biologists have rejected Darwinism Darwinism has been modified There have been no credible challenges to Darwin s theory The Fact of Evolution Observable Evidence Physical evidence in 1 Observable examples of the evolutionary process 2 Fossils 3 Distribution in space and time 4 Homologies
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