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The Brain Week 1 & 2

by: Joslyn Diaz

The Brain Week 1 & 2 Psychology 100

Marketplace > Psychlogy > Psychology 100 > The Brain Week 1 2
Joslyn Diaz
UW - L
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover the Nervous system, Brainstem, Sensation and perception of the Brain
Introductory Psychology
Dr. O'Brien
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joslyn Diaz on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 100 at a university taught by Dr. O'Brien in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
THE BRAIN The Neuron: An individual nerve cell  Send and receive information  In nervous system  About 40 billion in brain Nerve: Collection of neurons  Bundle of tails of neurons Structures of Neurons  Soma (cell body): Contains the nucleus and provides for the l;ife process of the cell  Dendrites: Tree like projections, receive messages from other neurons  Axon: Tail, carry information from cell body to the terminal buttons  Terminal Buttons: pass information to the next neuron in the sequence  Myelin Sheath: Fatty tissue outside of axon, for messages to send faster EX. MS= Auto immune system that attacks the myelin coding Neuronal Communication:  Action potential (nerve impulse): Rapid increase in positive charge that travels down the axon EX. Alcohol, Coffee  “All or none” response -Like a light switch =Synapse: Not part of cell= It’s the gap b/w the terminal button of one neuron and dendrites -Only goes in one direction -can either be excited or inhibited The Nervous Stystem Centeral Nervous System: (CNS) -Brain -Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): -Automatic nervous system “Fight or Flight”= Sympathetic -Somatic Nervous System  Voluntary muscle control Nervous System CNS PNS Autonomic NS Somatic NS Sympathetic Parasympathetic Response system Response system -Reflex Arks are built in your spinal cord: that receives sensory input ad produce motor out before involving the brain Structure of the Brain (Brainstem)  Medulla: -Heartbeat -Breathing  Reticular Formation: -Physiological arousal (Alertness)  Cerebellum -Coordinated movement and balance  Limbic System: -Thalamus= Relays sensory information -Hypothalamus= motivational systems (4 F’s)  Feeding  Fighting  Fleeing  Reproducing -Amygdala= Emotions (Fear and Anger) -Hippocampus= New memory formation +If you damage hippocampus you cannot make mew memories, but you still have your long term memories  Cerebral Cortex: -Thin massively folded outer covering of the brain  Nearly all of the information processing occurs in the cortex  Why so convoluted? -to increase surface area Each hemisphere receives information from and control the opposite part side of the body =Contralateral Functioning Lobes of the Cortex: =Frontal Lobe: Planning, Judging, Speaking, Problem solving, motor cortex (Right side of brain, Left side of body) =Parietal Lobe: somatosensory cortex (sensory cortex) -Receives input form body -registers body position =Phantom Limbs: If your arm is cut off that part of limb is gone, but not that part of the brain +The sensory area spreads in brain that sends a signal that something is touching that missing limb EX. Loss of a foot= Input stimulate of genitals and leg =Occipital Lobe: Primary visual processing area +information from the right visual field is sent to the left hemisphere and vice versa =Temporal Lobe: auditory process, object recognition Sensation and Perception of the Brain Hemisphere Dominance =Left Hemisphere- Language =Right hemisphere- Control of facial expressions -analysis of complex visual patterns +faces (Prosopagnosia) =Corpus Callosum- Bundle of fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain =Perception- Process of organizing and interpreting sensations into meaningful experiences =Transduction- converting energy in the environment into electrical signals =Absulot Threshold- Smallest amount of stimulus energy necessary for an observer to reliably detect a stimulus EX. Hearing= someone that is drinking their coffee in the classroom (until you notice and focus on that one sound wave) EX. Sight= Seeing a star in the sky Parts of the Eye -Cornea and Lens +Focuses images onto your retina +80% focusing (cornea) + 20% focusing (Lens) -Iris and Pupil + change the size of the pupil to control the amount of light entering the eye - Retina +Layer of neurons on the back of the eye containing the photoreceptors Focusing Problems  Myopia (Near sighted)= eyeball is too long, and the point of focus is in front of the retina  Hyperopia (Far sighted)= eyeball is too short and the point of focus is behind the retina  Photoreceptors= Located on the back of the retina and contains photo pigments that signal the brain when exposed to light -Vitamin A: Carrots; Adjust better to different low light  Cones= Color vision -Concentrated in the fovea (center) -6 Million cones per eye  Rods= Night vision -found only in the periphery -120 million rods per eye  Fovea= Central .5-3.0 degrees of vision -fovea consists entirely of cone receptors


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