HIST 111, Week 4 Notes
HIST 111, Week 4 Notes History 111
Popular in United States History to 1865
Popular in History
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Chapter 5: The American Revolution Introduction • In the 1760s after winning the world war, many colonists were proud to be British • The American revolution sparked an “age of revolution” • Yet there was some odd paradoxes o Fought in the name of liberty but had slaves o Resist central authority but tie colonies closer together with new government The Origins of the American Revolution th • Long term political, intellectual, cultural and economic developments in the 18 century that led to revolution • Britain failed to define their relationship with the colonies o This was due to the constant war which was politically consuming and economically expensive o Competing visions of empire divided British officials • Old Whigs sought to decrease debt by raising taxes and cutting spending • New Whigs (radical/patriots) based it on trade and manufacturing instead of land and resources • Colonists believed they had a special place in the empire which justified Britain’s hands-‐off policy o Also developed their own political institutions – colonial assembly ▯ In charge of taxing residents and managing the colonies revenue • In both Britain and the colonies land was key to political participation o They took after the ideas from British countryside – ideology of republicanism ▯ Corrupting nature of power on the individual ▯ Need for those involved in self-‐governing to be virtuous ▯ And to be ever vigilant against the rise of conspiracies o Ideas were widely accepted throughout the colonies • John Locke’s “Essay Concerning Human Understanding” talked about the mind as a “tabula rasa” blank slate and that individuals are formed by their environment o This stemmed from the combination of Enlightenment and Great Awakening o Essay “ some thoughts concerning education” said that education was important • Same time there was a wave of evangelical protestant revivalism o Rev George Whitefield traveled the colonies preaching Calvinist sermons to huge crowds ▯ Focused on emotions and developing a personal relationship with god The Causes of the American Revolution • Most immediately the revolution resulted from the British Empire trying to reform after the 7 years war • The British Empire was now larger than ever and the responsibilities of post war were daunting o National debt was 13.5 times its annual revenue o Also had new costs in securing and defending new empire • King George III took the crown in 1760 and brought Tories into his Ministry which had previously been 3 decades of Whigs o Royal Proclamation of 1763 prohibited settling west of Appalachian mountains in attempt to limit wars with natives ▯ Colonists wanted this land • 1764 parliament passed the Sugar Act and the Currency Act • 1765 parliament passed the Stamp Act o This had more popular resistance cause it effected more people o Also first “internal tax” • Resistance took 3 forms based by class o Legislative resistance by elites ▯ Passed resolutions in assemblies ▯ “Virginia Resolves” declared the colonists were entitled to every right possessed by the people of Great Britain ▯ Stamp Act Congress in October 1765 • Issued a “declaration of rights and grievances” o Ben frank called it the “Prime maxim of all free Government” o Economic resistance by merchants ▯ Came up with non-‐importation agreements that in NYC alone over 200 merchants agreed to ▯ By Jan 1766 London merchants sent a letter to Parliament arguing that they had been “reduced to the necessity of pending ruin” o Popular protest by common colonists ▯ Violent riots broke out in Boston ▯ Destroyed homes and property of stamp act supporters ▯ By Nov 16 all original 12 stamp collectors had resigned ▯ 1766 the “Sons of Liberty” were formed to direct and organize further popular resistance • Pressure on Parliament grew until they repealed the Stamp Act in 1766 o To save face they passed the Declaratory Act saying that they could tax if they wanted to • Townshend Acts were passed in June 1767, creating new customs duties on common items like lead, glass, paint and tea o New incentives for governors to convict offenders o Increased presence of British government in the colonies • New forms of resistance arose where all classes worked together o Women also became involved in resistance ▯ Without importation of clothes spinning clubs were formed to make clothes ▯ Homespun clothes quickly became marker of virtue and patriotism o Non importation and Non consumption led to colonial unity • Newspapers were utilized to keep everyone up to date on resistance in each colony • March 1770 Parliament repealed all of the new duties except the one on tea Independence • April 1773 Parliament passed 2 acts to aid the failing East India Company o Passed Tea Act which allowed the company to sell tea to the colonies directly and without the usual import duties ▯ This would greatly lower the cost of tea • By buying the tea colonists would be acknowledging the duty and therefore parliaments right to tax • Tax was to be paid upon the ships arrival and therefore the Boston Sons of Liberty prevented the ships from docking o Led by Sam Adams and John Hancock o When ships didn’t leave they had another meeting and decided to dress up as Indians and dump the tea • This inspired other colonies to have mini “tea parties” across the country • Women across the colonies could actively express their political sentiments as consumers and producers • In response the parliament passed the “Coercive Acts” also known as the “Intolerable Acts” o Boston Port Act shut down the harbor and cut off all trade to and from the city o Massachusetts Government Act put the colonial government entirely under British control o Administration of Justice Act allowed any royal official accused of a crime to be tried in Britain rather than Mass o Quartering Act allowed the British army to quarter newly arrived soldiers in colonists homes • Other colonies came to Boston’s aid • Committees of Correspondence agreed to send delegates to a Continental Congress to coordinate an inter-‐colonial response o All colonies had a committee except GA o First congress was Sep 5, 1774 ▯ 6 weeks long • Congress issued a document known as the “Continental Association” which declared that a committee must be chosen to “observe the conduct of all persons” o These committees would largely consist of common colonists o Delegates also agreed to a continental non-‐importation, non-‐ consumption, and non-‐exportation agreement and to “wholly discontinue the slave trade” • As the situation intensified throughout 1774 and 1775, factions emerged within the resistance movements in many colonies o Elite merchants who traded with Britian, Angelican clergy, and colonists holding royal offices depended on their relationship with Britain • By the time the Continental Congress met again in May 1775 a war had broken out in Lexington and Concord Mass o Approximately 20,000 colonial militiamen lay siege to Boston, trapping the British • In June the militia set up fortifications on Breed’s Hill in the “Battle of Bunker Hill” o Congress tried to organize a response but there was a mix between radicals and moderates o Congress compromised, agreeing to adopt the Mass militia and form a Continental Army ▯ George Washington was commander-‐in-‐chief • Two documents were drafted: “Declaration of the Causes of Necessity of Taking Up Arms” by the radicals and the “Olive Branch Petition” by the moderates o Petition arrived in England on August 13, 1775 but before it arrived the king issued a “Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition” • Thomas Paine’s Common Sense was a 46 page pamphlet published which denounced the monarchy • In VA, the royal governor, Lord Dunmore, issued a proclamation declaring that all servants and slaves would be free if they joined the british o 500-‐1000 slaves joined o Mostly served as laborers, skilled workers and spies o Pushed many white southerners into rebellion • Majority of the Declaration of Independence outlined a list of specific grievances that the colonists had with the many actions taken by the British during the 1760s and 1770s o Early drafts opposed slavery but south Carolina and GA opposed o Approved on July 4, 1776 The War for Independence • Summer 1776 troops arrived in New York from Britain and German mercenaries called “Hessians” o New york had many loyalists o Continental army retreated through New Jersey • Washington wanted to boost spirits so he launched a surprise attack on the Hessian camp at Trenton on Christmas Day o Crossed the Delaware river during the night • Major turning point was when the Continental army defeated General John Burgoyne’s men at Saratoga, New York o This convinced the French to sign the “Treaty of Amity and Commerce” on Feb 6, 1778 to aid the colonists • Howe (British General) quickly realized that European military tactics would not work in North America • Washington realized that the untrained Continental Army could not match up in head-‐on battles with the professional Brithsh army o Better to have many smaller battles than one large one • 1778 the British turned to the South for help o Pitted family members against one another • By 1781 the British were also fighting France, Spain, and Holland which caused public support in Britain to wane • Cornwallis and Washington captured Yorktown which left the British without a new strategy and without public support to continue the war o Peace negotiations took place in France and the war ended on September 3, 1783 • Women and slaves were greatly impacted by the revolution • Peter Salem became first slave to fight in continental army in 1775 o Estimated that between 30,000 and 100,000 slaves deserted their masters during the war The consequences of the American Revolution • Most immediate consequence of declaring independence was the creation of state constitutions o Also had effects on the women, slaves, and native americans in the new USA • Revolution ended the mercantilist economy, opening new opportunities in trade and manufacturing • Pennsylvania’s first state constitution was the most radical and democratic o Unicameral legislature and an executive council but no genuine executive o All free men could vote • Fall 1779 each town sent delegates to a constitutional convention in Cambridge o Mass established a 3 branch government with checks and balances • Continental congress ratified the Articles of Confederation in 1781 o Allowed each state one vote in continental congress o Congress had no power to levy/collect taxes or establish a judicial system • Revolution did not provide equality for women, rather now seen as “republican mothers” o Mothers responsibility to raise educated and virtuous citizens o Opened doors to education for women • Approximately 60,000 loyalists ended up leaving America because of Revolution o Colonies seized land owned by loyalists • Many of the fleeing colonists went to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Quebec • Treaty of Paris demanded that British Troops leave runaway slaves behind o But many times they were smuggled out and transported to Canada, Caribbean or Great Britain o David George, a black loyalist and Baptist preacher, helped some settle in Sierra Leone • Revolution’s rhetoric created a “revolutionary generation” of slaves and free blacks that would encourage the anti slavery movement Chapter 5 Supplemental George R. T. Hewes, A Retrospect of the Boston Tea party, 1834 • Wrote a reminiscence of the Boston tea party almost 61 years after it occurred • Tea destroyed was contained in 3 ships in Griffin’s wharf o Told the Bostonians that she ship must dock by dec 17 1733 or the ships would attack • Were waiting on advice from the Governor but when they went to see him the Gov had fled • Immediately went home and dressed like an Indian o When they got to the wharf the group was divided into 3 parties for the 3 ships o Leonard Pitt commanded his group • Hewes was named boatswain and had to demand the keys from the hatches o Captain handed them over but requested that no damage be done to the ship/rigging • Took 3 hours to dump all the tea o British armed ships made no attempt to resist them • Some tried to take small amounts of tea with them to their families o One person, Captain O’Connor filled his pockets and the linking of his coat ▯ Tried to catch/stop him but he ran away ▯ Next day they nailed his coat to the whipping post in his town of Charleston • Some tea was floating on the top the next day so they sent out people in row boats to beat it down with oars and paddles Thomas Paine calls for American Independence, 1776 • British had always considered themselves free until reading Paine’s pamphlet o This led to widespread support for American independence o Called “Common Sense” • Society in every state is a blessing but government, even in the best state, is a necessary evil • Oppression is often the consequence of riches • Also unnatural to have people classified as kings and subjects • Without a king there is no war • Government with kings was first introduced into the world by the Heathens o Heathens paid divine honors to their deceased kings • We have made it worse by adding hereditary succession Declaration of Independence, 1776 • Both cut ties with England and serves as a transformative piece of political philosophy • July 4, 1776 a unanimous declaration of the 13 united states of America • Every individual has unalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness • We need to derive power from consent of the governed • When government becomes bad people should have the right to a new government • Colonies listed why they were mad at the king o Refuse to let colonies pass laws o Calls meetings that reps cannot get to so they cannot attend o Obstructed justice o Kept troops in colonies even during peace times o Imposing taxes without consent o Housing soldiers in peoples homes o Depriving people to trial by jury o For taking away charters • 56 people signed the declaration of independence Women in South Carolina experience occupation, 1780 • British faced the task of fighting a war without pushing more colonists into the hands of the revolutionaries • Eliza Wilkinson describes the stress faced by non-‐combatants who had to face the British army • The army rushed to the house looking for the “women rebels” o Yelled mean things and charged them with swords and pistols • They then began to plunder the house • The next wave of soldiers were more civil but still stole things • Were just as abusive to the girls elderly parents Abigail and John Adams Converse on Women’s rights, 1776 • American Rev invited a reconsideration of all social inequalities o Abigail Adams asked her husband to “remember the ladies” when creating new laws ▯ He thought it was a joke • Abigail’s letter to John Adams, o March 1776 ▯ She wishes he would right her more and tell her more about the revolution ▯ She has been thinking about the Christian principle, doing to others as we would that others should do unto us ▯ As you make a new Code of Laws I desire you would “Remember the ladies” ▯ If this is not done they will have their own revolution for they will not be bound by laws where they have no voice and representation ▯ Become a friend instead of a master o April 5 ▯ Many of her neighbors are sick/have died from Canker fever and the mumps • Johns letter to Abigail o April 14, 1776 (in response to her march letter) o Basically you’re “saucy” and crazy and I love you