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HIST 111, Week 4 Notes

by: Rachel Stein

HIST 111, Week 4 Notes History 111

Rachel Stein
GPA 3.8

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These have supplemental readings and readings from the book for Chapter 5. Posting this today so you can look over it before a possible in class quiz!
United States History to 1865
Nicole Maskiell
Class Notes
history, united states
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
Chapter  5:  The  American  Revolution   Introduction   • In  the  1760s  after  winning  the  world  war,  many  colonists  were  proud  to  be   British   • The  American  revolution  sparked  an  “age  of  revolution”   • Yet  there  was  some  odd  paradoxes   o Fought  in  the  name  of  liberty  but  had  slaves   o Resist  central  authority  but  tie  colonies  closer  together  with  new   government   The  Origins  of  the  American  Revolution   th • Long  term  political,  intellectual,  cultural  and  economic  developments  in  the  18   century  that  led  to  revolution     • Britain  failed  to  define  their  relationship  with  the  colonies       o This  was  due  to  the  constant  war  which  was  politically  consuming  and   economically  expensive     o Competing  visions  of  empire  divided  British  officials     • Old  Whigs  sought  to  decrease  debt  by  raising  taxes  and  cutting  spending   • New  Whigs  (radical/patriots)  based  it  on  trade  and  manufacturing  instead  of   land  and  resources     • Colonists  believed  they  had  a  special  place  in  the  empire  which  justified  Britain’s   hands-­‐off  policy   o Also  developed  their  own  political  institutions  –  colonial  assembly   ▯ In  charge  of  taxing  residents  and  managing  the  colonies  revenue     • In  both  Britain  and  the  colonies  land  was  key  to  political  participation     o They  took  after  the  ideas  from  British  countryside  –  ideology  of   republicanism   ▯ Corrupting  nature  of  power  on  the  individual   ▯ Need  for  those  involved  in  self-­‐governing  to  be  virtuous   ▯ And  to  be  ever  vigilant  against  the  rise  of  conspiracies     o Ideas  were  widely  accepted  throughout  the  colonies   • John  Locke’s  “Essay  Concerning  Human  Understanding”  talked  about  the  mind  as   a  “tabula  rasa”  blank  slate  and  that  individuals  are  formed  by  their  environment   o This  stemmed  from  the  combination  of  Enlightenment  and  Great   Awakening     o Essay  “  some  thoughts  concerning  education”  said  that  education  was   important   • Same  time  there  was  a  wave  of  evangelical  protestant  revivalism     o Rev  George  Whitefield  traveled  the  colonies  preaching  Calvinist  sermons   to  huge  crowds     ▯ Focused  on  emotions  and  developing  a  personal  relationship  with   god     The  Causes  of  the  American  Revolution   • Most  immediately  the  revolution  resulted  from  the  British  Empire  trying  to   reform  after  the  7  years  war   • The  British  Empire  was  now  larger  than  ever  and  the  responsibilities  of  post  war   were  daunting     o National  debt  was  13.5  times  its  annual  revenue     o Also  had  new  costs  in  securing  and  defending  new  empire     • King  George  III  took  the  crown  in  1760  and  brought  Tories  into  his  Ministry   which  had  previously  been  3  decades  of  Whigs     o Royal  Proclamation  of  1763  prohibited  settling  west  of  Appalachian   mountains  in  attempt  to  limit  wars  with  natives     ▯ Colonists  wanted  this  land   • 1764  parliament  passed  the  Sugar  Act  and  the  Currency  Act     • 1765  parliament  passed  the  Stamp  Act   o This  had  more  popular  resistance  cause  it  effected  more  people   o Also  first  “internal  tax”     • Resistance  took  3  forms  based  by  class   o Legislative  resistance  by  elites   ▯ Passed  resolutions  in  assemblies     ▯ “Virginia  Resolves”  declared  the  colonists  were  entitled  to  every   right  possessed  by  the  people  of  Great  Britain     ▯ Stamp  Act  Congress  in  October  1765   • Issued  a  “declaration  of  rights  and  grievances”     o Ben  frank  called  it  the  “Prime  maxim  of  all  free   Government”   o Economic  resistance  by  merchants   ▯ Came  up  with  non-­‐importation  agreements  that  in  NYC  alone  over   200  merchants  agreed  to     ▯ By  Jan  1766  London  merchants  sent  a  letter  to  Parliament  arguing   that  they  had  been  “reduced  to  the  necessity  of  pending  ruin”     o Popular  protest  by  common  colonists     ▯ Violent  riots  broke  out  in  Boston     ▯ Destroyed  homes  and  property  of  stamp  act  supporters     ▯ By  Nov  16  all  original  12  stamp  collectors  had  resigned     ▯ 1766  the  “Sons  of  Liberty”  were  formed  to  direct  and  organize   further  popular  resistance     • Pressure  on  Parliament  grew  until  they  repealed  the  Stamp  Act  in  1766     o To  save  face  they  passed  the  Declaratory  Act  saying  that  they  could  tax  if   they  wanted  to     • Townshend  Acts  were  passed  in  June  1767,  creating  new  customs  duties  on   common  items  like  lead,  glass,  paint  and  tea     o New  incentives  for  governors  to  convict  offenders     o Increased  presence  of  British  government  in  the  colonies     • New  forms  of  resistance  arose  where  all  classes  worked  together     o Women  also  became  involved  in  resistance     ▯ Without  importation  of  clothes  spinning  clubs  were  formed  to   make  clothes     ▯ Homespun  clothes  quickly  became  marker  of  virtue  and  patriotism     o Non  importation  and  Non  consumption  led  to  colonial  unity     • Newspapers  were  utilized  to  keep  everyone  up  to  date  on  resistance  in  each   colony     • March  1770  Parliament  repealed  all  of  the  new  duties  except  the  one  on  tea     Independence     • April  1773  Parliament  passed  2  acts  to  aid  the  failing  East  India  Company     o Passed  Tea  Act  which  allowed  the  company  to  sell  tea  to  the  colonies   directly  and  without  the  usual  import  duties     ▯ This  would  greatly  lower  the  cost  of  tea     • By  buying  the  tea  colonists  would  be  acknowledging  the  duty  and  therefore   parliaments  right  to  tax     • Tax  was  to  be  paid  upon  the  ships  arrival  and  therefore  the  Boston  Sons  of   Liberty  prevented  the  ships  from  docking     o Led  by  Sam  Adams  and  John  Hancock     o When  ships  didn’t  leave  they  had  another  meeting  and  decided  to  dress   up  as  Indians  and  dump  the  tea   • This  inspired  other  colonies  to  have  mini  “tea  parties”  across  the  country     • Women  across  the  colonies  could  actively  express  their  political  sentiments  as   consumers  and  producers     • In  response  the  parliament  passed  the  “Coercive  Acts”  also  known  as  the   “Intolerable  Acts”     o Boston  Port  Act  shut  down  the  harbor  and  cut  off  all  trade  to  and  from  the   city     o Massachusetts  Government  Act  put  the  colonial  government  entirely   under  British  control     o Administration  of  Justice  Act  allowed  any  royal  official  accused  of  a  crime   to  be  tried  in  Britain  rather  than  Mass     o Quartering  Act  allowed  the  British  army  to  quarter  newly  arrived  soldiers   in  colonists  homes     • Other  colonies  came  to  Boston’s  aid     • Committees  of  Correspondence  agreed  to  send  delegates  to  a  Continental   Congress  to  coordinate  an  inter-­‐colonial  response   o All  colonies  had  a  committee  except  GA     o First  congress  was  Sep  5,  1774     ▯ 6  weeks  long     • Congress  issued  a  document  known  as  the  “Continental  Association”  which   declared  that  a  committee  must  be  chosen  to  “observe  the  conduct  of  all   persons”     o These  committees  would  largely  consist  of  common  colonists     o Delegates  also  agreed  to  a  continental  non-­‐importation,  non-­‐ consumption,  and  non-­‐exportation  agreement  and  to  “wholly  discontinue   the  slave  trade”     • As  the  situation  intensified  throughout  1774  and  1775,  factions  emerged  within   the  resistance  movements  in  many  colonies     o Elite  merchants  who  traded  with  Britian,  Angelican  clergy,  and  colonists   holding  royal  offices  depended  on  their  relationship  with  Britain     • By  the  time  the  Continental  Congress  met  again  in  May  1775  a  war  had  broken   out  in  Lexington  and  Concord  Mass   o Approximately  20,000  colonial  militiamen  lay  siege  to  Boston,  trapping   the  British     • In  June  the  militia  set  up  fortifications  on  Breed’s  Hill  in  the  “Battle  of  Bunker   Hill”   o Congress  tried  to  organize  a  response  but  there  was  a  mix  between   radicals  and  moderates   o Congress  compromised,  agreeing  to  adopt  the  Mass  militia  and  form  a   Continental  Army   ▯ George  Washington  was  commander-­‐in-­‐chief     • Two  documents  were  drafted:  “Declaration  of  the  Causes  of  Necessity  of  Taking   Up  Arms”  by  the  radicals  and  the  “Olive  Branch  Petition”  by  the  moderates     o Petition  arrived  in  England  on  August  13,  1775  but  before  it  arrived  the   king  issued  a  “Proclamation  for  Suppressing  Rebellion  and  Sedition”     • Thomas  Paine’s  Common  Sense  was  a  46  page  pamphlet  published  which   denounced  the  monarchy     • In  VA,  the  royal  governor,  Lord  Dunmore,  issued  a  proclamation  declaring  that   all  servants  and  slaves  would  be  free  if  they  joined  the  british   o 500-­‐1000  slaves  joined     o Mostly  served  as  laborers,  skilled  workers  and  spies     o Pushed  many  white  southerners  into  rebellion     • Majority  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence  outlined  a  list  of  specific  grievances   that  the  colonists  had  with  the  many  actions  taken  by  the  British  during  the   1760s  and  1770s   o Early  drafts  opposed  slavery  but  south  Carolina  and  GA  opposed   o Approved  on  July  4,  1776   The  War  for  Independence     • Summer  1776  troops  arrived  in  New  York  from  Britain  and  German  mercenaries   called  “Hessians”     o New  york  had  many  loyalists     o Continental  army  retreated  through  New  Jersey     • Washington  wanted  to  boost  spirits  so  he  launched  a  surprise  attack  on  the   Hessian  camp  at  Trenton  on  Christmas  Day     o Crossed  the  Delaware  river  during  the  night     • Major  turning  point  was  when  the  Continental  army  defeated  General  John   Burgoyne’s  men  at  Saratoga,  New  York     o This  convinced  the  French  to  sign  the  “Treaty  of  Amity  and  Commerce”  on   Feb  6,  1778  to  aid  the  colonists     • Howe  (British  General)  quickly  realized  that  European  military  tactics  would  not   work  in  North  America     • Washington  realized  that  the  untrained  Continental  Army  could  not  match  up  in   head-­‐on  battles  with  the  professional  Brithsh  army     o Better  to  have  many  smaller  battles  than  one  large  one     • 1778  the  British  turned  to  the  South  for  help     o Pitted  family  members  against  one  another   • By  1781  the  British  were  also  fighting  France,  Spain,  and  Holland  which  caused   public  support  in  Britain  to  wane     • Cornwallis  and  Washington  captured  Yorktown  which  left  the  British  without  a   new  strategy  and  without  public  support  to  continue  the  war     o Peace  negotiations  took  place  in  France  and  the  war  ended  on  September   3,  1783   • Women  and  slaves  were  greatly  impacted  by  the  revolution   • Peter  Salem  became  first  slave  to  fight  in  continental  army  in  1775     o Estimated  that  between  30,000  and  100,000  slaves  deserted  their   masters  during  the  war   The  consequences  of  the  American  Revolution     • Most  immediate  consequence  of  declaring  independence  was  the  creation  of   state  constitutions     o Also  had  effects  on  the  women,  slaves,  and  native  americans  in  the  new   USA     • Revolution  ended  the  mercantilist  economy,  opening  new  opportunities  in  trade   and  manufacturing     • Pennsylvania’s  first  state  constitution  was  the  most  radical  and  democratic     o Unicameral  legislature  and  an  executive  council  but  no  genuine  executive     o All  free  men  could  vote   • Fall  1779  each  town  sent  delegates  to  a  constitutional  convention  in  Cambridge     o Mass  established  a  3  branch  government  with  checks  and  balances     • Continental  congress  ratified  the  Articles  of  Confederation  in  1781   o Allowed  each  state  one  vote  in  continental  congress     o Congress  had  no  power  to  levy/collect  taxes  or  establish  a  judicial  system   • Revolution  did  not  provide  equality  for  women,  rather  now  seen  as  “republican   mothers”   o Mothers  responsibility  to  raise  educated  and  virtuous  citizens     o Opened  doors  to  education  for  women     • Approximately  60,000  loyalists  ended  up  leaving  America  because  of  Revolution     o Colonies  seized  land  owned  by  loyalists     • Many  of  the  fleeing  colonists  went  to  Nova  Scotia,  New  Brunswick  and  Quebec     • Treaty  of  Paris  demanded  that  British  Troops  leave  runaway  slaves  behind   o But  many  times  they  were  smuggled  out  and  transported  to  Canada,   Caribbean  or  Great  Britain     o David  George,  a  black  loyalist  and  Baptist  preacher,  helped  some  settle  in   Sierra  Leone     • Revolution’s  rhetoric  created  a  “revolutionary  generation”  of  slaves  and  free   blacks  that  would  encourage  the  anti  slavery  movement       Chapter  5  Supplemental     George  R.  T.  Hewes,  A  Retrospect  of  the  Boston  Tea  party,  1834   • Wrote  a  reminiscence  of  the  Boston  tea  party  almost  61  years  after  it  occurred     • Tea  destroyed  was  contained  in  3  ships  in  Griffin’s  wharf     o Told  the  Bostonians  that  she  ship  must  dock  by  dec  17  1733  or  the  ships   would  attack   • Were  waiting  on  advice  from  the  Governor  but  when  they  went  to  see  him  the   Gov  had  fled     • Immediately  went  home  and  dressed  like  an  Indian     o When  they  got  to  the  wharf  the  group  was  divided  into  3  parties  for  the  3   ships     o Leonard  Pitt  commanded  his  group   • Hewes  was  named  boatswain  and  had  to  demand  the  keys  from  the  hatches   o Captain  handed  them  over  but  requested  that  no  damage  be  done  to  the   ship/rigging   • Took  3  hours  to  dump  all  the  tea   o British  armed  ships  made  no  attempt  to  resist  them     • Some  tried  to  take  small  amounts  of  tea  with  them  to  their  families   o One  person,  Captain  O’Connor  filled  his  pockets  and  the  linking  of  his  coat   ▯ Tried  to  catch/stop  him  but  he  ran  away   ▯ Next  day  they  nailed  his  coat  to  the  whipping  post  in  his  town  of   Charleston     • Some  tea  was  floating  on  the  top  the  next  day  so  they  sent  out  people  in  row   boats  to  beat  it  down  with  oars  and  paddles     Thomas  Paine  calls  for  American  Independence,  1776   • British  had  always  considered  themselves  free  until  reading  Paine’s  pamphlet   o This  led  to  widespread  support  for  American  independence     o Called  “Common  Sense”   • Society  in  every  state  is  a  blessing  but  government,  even  in  the  best  state,  is  a   necessary  evil   • Oppression  is  often  the  consequence  of  riches     • Also  unnatural  to  have  people  classified  as  kings  and  subjects     • Without  a  king  there  is  no  war     • Government  with  kings  was  first  introduced  into  the  world  by  the  Heathens     o Heathens  paid  divine  honors  to  their  deceased  kings     • We  have  made  it  worse  by  adding  hereditary  succession     Declaration  of  Independence,  1776     • Both  cut  ties  with  England  and  serves  as  a  transformative  piece  of  political   philosophy     • July  4,  1776  a  unanimous  declaration  of  the  13  united  states  of  America     • Every  individual  has  unalienable  rights  to  life,  liberty,  and  the  pursuit  of   happiness     • We  need  to  derive  power  from  consent  of  the  governed     • When  government  becomes  bad  people  should  have  the  right  to  a  new   government     • Colonies  listed  why  they  were  mad  at  the  king   o Refuse  to  let  colonies  pass  laws   o Calls  meetings  that  reps  cannot  get  to  so  they  cannot  attend   o Obstructed  justice   o Kept  troops  in  colonies  even  during  peace  times     o Imposing  taxes  without  consent   o Housing  soldiers  in  peoples  homes   o Depriving  people  to  trial  by  jury     o For  taking  away  charters   • 56  people  signed  the  declaration  of  independence     Women  in  South  Carolina  experience  occupation,  1780   • British  faced  the  task  of  fighting  a  war  without  pushing  more  colonists  into  the   hands  of  the  revolutionaries     • Eliza  Wilkinson  describes  the  stress  faced  by  non-­‐combatants  who  had  to  face   the  British  army   • The  army  rushed  to  the  house  looking  for  the  “women  rebels”     o Yelled  mean  things  and  charged  them  with  swords  and  pistols     • They  then  began  to  plunder  the  house     • The  next  wave  of  soldiers  were  more  civil  but  still  stole  things   • Were  just  as  abusive  to  the  girls  elderly  parents   Abigail  and  John  Adams  Converse  on  Women’s  rights,  1776   • American  Rev  invited  a  reconsideration  of  all  social  inequalities   o Abigail  Adams  asked  her  husband  to  “remember  the  ladies”  when   creating  new  laws   ▯ He  thought  it  was  a  joke     • Abigail’s  letter  to  John  Adams,     o March  1776   ▯ She  wishes  he  would  right  her  more  and  tell  her  more  about  the   revolution   ▯ She  has  been  thinking  about  the  Christian  principle,  doing  to   others  as  we  would  that  others  should  do  unto  us     ▯ As  you  make  a  new  Code  of  Laws  I  desire  you  would  “Remember   the  ladies”     ▯ If  this  is  not  done  they  will  have  their  own  revolution  for  they  will   not  be  bound  by  laws  where  they  have  no  voice  and   representation   ▯ Become  a  friend  instead  of  a  master     o April  5   ▯ Many  of  her  neighbors  are  sick/have  died  from  Canker  fever  and   the  mumps     • Johns  letter  to  Abigail     o April  14,  1776  (in  response  to  her  march  letter)   o Basically  you’re  “saucy”  and  crazy  and  I  love  you  


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