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Bio Week 3&4 Ch 7 and Ch 5

by: MiaJ

Bio Week 3&4 Ch 7 and Ch 5 Bio 1100

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Biology > Bio 1100 > Bio Week 3 4 Ch 7 and Ch 5
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About this Document

Principles of biology outlined lecture notes.
Principles Of Biology
Dr. Rao
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by MiaJ on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1100 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Rao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology in Biology at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
Lecture 5 (Ch.7) All Cells Have:  Nucleic Acids (store and transmit information)  Proteins (performs cells functions)  Carbohydrates (chemical energy, carbon, support, and identity)  Plasma Membrane (selectively permeable membrane barrier) Morphology Prokaryotes (bacterium) - has no membrane bound nucleus Inside: Plasma Membrane with a phospholipid bilayer Carries DNA (plasmid and 1 long chromosome) Contains Ribosomes (RNAs) & Protein (for Protein synthesis) Outside: Flagellum (helps to move the cell around other Cells) Fimbriae (Promote attachment to other cells and surfaces) Eukaryotes (plants and animals) – membrane bound nucleus -Range in size from very small to very large -Multicellular -Most are larger than Prokaryotic Cells Organelles: Nucleus o Double membrane nuclear envelope (how things get in and out of the nucleus. DNA and RNA enters through its nuclear pores) o Genetic information storage (chromosome DNA) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum o A network of membrane-bound tubes and sacs studded with ribosomes *Ribosomes are not organelles because they don’t have a double membrane* o Synthesis of proteins Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum o Lacks ribosomes o Contains enzymes catalyze reactions involving lipids  Synthesis of lipids  Breaks down lipids Golgi apparatus o Flat membranous sacs (cisternae) o Modifies, sorts, and packs proteins and lipids for secretion in the cisternae Lysosomes (Animals Only) o Digest and process waste and recycling Mitochondria o 2 membranes o Has its own DNA o The “power house” o ATP production to provide energy Cell Wall (Only in Plants) o Protects the cell ( Made up of cellulose in plants and chitin in fungi) Chloroplast (In plants; makes the green color) o Contains its own DNA o Converts light energy to chemical energy (photosynthesis Vacuoles o Large membrane structure o Storages water and contains digestive enzymes Lecture 6 (Ch. 5) Monosaccharide monomers (simpleOsugars like glucose) vary in 4 ways: 1. Location of carbonyl C -Aldose (end of monosaccharide) -Ketose (middle of moHosCcchHride) H O H H C H O C O H C H OH 2. Number of carbon atoms present -Trisome:C-C-C -Pentose:C-C-C-C-C -Hexose:C-C-C-C-C-C 3. Spatial arrangement of atoms -different arrangement of hydroxyl groups 4-sugars from ring structure in aqueous solution Multiple monosaccharide monomers together form polymers- polysaccharides (multiple simple sugars make complex carbohydrates) Disaccharides (mono+mono) (fructose, glactose)  2 monosaccharide monomers  Monomers can be identical or identical Carbohydrates  Store chemical energy  Provide fibrous structural materials  Indicates cell identity Types of Polysaccharides 1. Starch (plants store as sugar)  Mixture of branched (amylopectin) and unbranched (amylose) 2. Glycogen (Animals store as sugar)  Highly branched α-glucose polymer 3. Cellulose (Polymer in plant cell walls)  Polymer of β-glucose monomers 4. Chitin (Polymer in fungi cell walls, some algae)  Polymer of β-glucose monomers 5. Peptidoglycan (structural support for bacterial cell walls) 6. Oligosaccharides (structure modification of cell membrane proteins provide cell identity) Carbohydrate Structures o How Cellulose, chitin, and Peptidoglycan (polysaccharides) provide structure:  Form long strands with bonds between adjacent strands  Strands organized in fibers or layered sheets  Water is excluded making fibers insoluble  Gives cells and organisms great strength and elasticity The β linkages are harder to break down than the α Carbohydrate Cell Identity o Displays information on the outer surface of cells in the form of glycoproteins -Proteins are joined by covalent bonds o Glycoproteins are key molecules in: -Cell-cell recognition -Cell-cell signaling Glycoproteins are signals on the cell that sit on the membrane and send signals out to other cells


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