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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by MiaJ on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1100 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Rao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology in Biology at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Lecture 7 Ch. 8 First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is being conserved by: Not creating or destroying the energy Transferring and transforming it Enthalpy- a measure of energy that uses the internal energy, and the amount of energy required to make room for it by displacing its environment and establishing its volume and pressure. ∆???? = ???? + ???????? Surrounding pressure (p) Changes in enthalpy Internal Energy And Volume (V) Second Law of Thermodynamics When the product of a chemical reaction becomes less ordered than the reactant molecules: Entropy increases ΔS>0 Entropy- measure of disorder or randomness Gibbs free energy Change (G): Determines if a reaction is spontaneous or requires added energy ∆???? = ∆???? − ????∆????*********** Gibbs free energy change The change in enthalpy (measure of chemical potential energy) (ΔS) Change in entropy (measure of disorder) T (temperature in degrees kelvin) Lecture 7 Ch. 8 Potential Energy: Kinetic Energy: Stored chemical energy of position Energy of motion (thermal energy) Ex: The ball falling down the slope is releasing the energy Ex: The ball is at the top of the slope storing energy through motion - *Electrons have the greatest potential energy in the outermost electron shells* - Electrons with a negative charge have high potential energy Exergonic reaction (ΔG<0): Spontaneous and doesn’t require energy (releases energy); i.e. Making your room dirty Endergonic reaction (ΔG>0): Requires an energy input and isn’t spontaneous; i.e. it takes energy for you to clean up your room ATP stores large amounts of potential energy Oxidation- the loss of one or more electron (one atom loses, another gains) Lecture 7 Ch. 8 Enzymes: “Lock and Key” Protein catalyzes (lower activation energy; increases reaction rate) that speed up chemical reactions required for life. Enzymes bring substrates together in the enzyme’s active site (change called induced fit). The catalyzed reaction depends on: o Substrate concentration o Temperature o PH o Enzyme’s intrinsic affinity for the substrate
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