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Unit 2 02-10-2016

by: Faiqa Rahman

Unit 2 02-10-2016 BIOL 2350

Faiqa Rahman
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About this Document

This is what we covered in lecture on 02/10/2016
Biological Basis for Health and Disease
Dr. Ilya Sapozhnikov
Class Notes
reproduction, male, biological basis, health, disease




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Faiqa Rahman on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2350 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Ilya Sapozhnikov in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Biological Basis for Health and Disease in Biology at University of Texas at Dallas.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
BBHD  Unit  2  -­‐02/10/2016       Gonads  produce  gametes  in  testes   Spermatogenesis:   • begins  at  the  time  of  puberty  (age  11-­‐14)  and  lasts  for  a  lifetime.     • Begins  at  the  testis  (singular)   • Produce  no  less  than  5  million  of  sperm  cells   Average  age  of  cessation  of  ova  50.8  years   Oogenesis:   • produces  one  egg  per  month.     • Typical  cycles  28  days.     • Cyclic  event  last  30-­‐35  years   Testis  located  outside  of  the  body  in  pouch  called  scrotum.     Required  temperature  for  spermatogenesis  to  make  spermatozoa  is  95  degrees   Fahrenheit.     Scrotum  has  a  thin  layer  of    smooth  muscle.   Darthos  muscle:   • High  temperature=  testis  away  because  scrotum  relaxes   • Low  temperature=  testis  closer  because  scrotum  contracts  and  shrinks     Skeletal  muscle  relaxes  or  contracts.     On  top  of  testis  Veins  are  set  as  a  “fridge”  to  cool  the  scrotum.     Testis  one  inch  wide  and  one  inch  thick   Tunica  albuginea:   • means  whitish  layer  encases  the  testes.     • This  also  encases  the  ovary.     Tunica  vaginalis:   • is  the  continuation  of  the  lining  of  the  abdominal  pelvic  area.   Hydrocele:    the  accumulation  of  fluid  in  testis  not  serious  health  wise  but  very  uncomfortable.   Seminiferous  tubules:     • hormonal  production  and  spermatogenesis     Spermyogenesis:   • maturation    (3  months)   Leydig  cells   • produce  testosterone   During  Puberty:   • Voice  box  thickens  and  shortens  ,   • broadens  shoulders     • narrow  pelvis.   Interstitial  cells  produce  testosterone   Spermatogenic  cells  mature  spermatozoa   Sertoli  Cells  (Nursing  cells):  give  shape.     Vas  deferens:   • structure  tube,  which  ascends  the  site  of  the  pelvic  cavity.     • Dilation  and  spermatozoa  is  stored  and  undergo  some  final  alignments  for   the  maturation.     • But  mainly  for  storage.     • It  is  ejaculated  from  here  during  ejaculation.     • Spermatozoa  can  survive  and  retain  viability  for  6-­‐8  weeks.  If  not  it  is   absorbed  to  the  blood.     Seminal  vesicles  yellowish  fluid  containing  fructose   Ejaculatory  duct  pierces  the  prostate  gland.       Prostate  Gland:   • The  prostate  gland  is  the  size  of  a    walnut.     • The  gland  produces  a  second  element  of  seminal  fluid.     • Highly  alkaline  fluid  is  produced  there  so  it  can  neutralize  the  acidic   environment  of  the  penis  from  urethra.  As  well  as  the  vagina’s  acidic  pH  2.5.       Circumcised  males  have  60%  less  chance  of  getting  AIDS  than  noncircumcised  males    


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