BIO 111, Week 5 Notes
BIO 111, Week 5 Notes BIOL 11100 - Fundamentals of Biology II
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BIOL 11100 - Fundamentals of Biology II
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 11100 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Dr. Athena Anderson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Biology in Science at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
2/11/16:Animal Nutrition What is Nutrition? ● Animals are heterotrophs; they have to eat and balance consumption, storage, and use of food. ● Nutrition: The process by which organisms take in and use food material. Adequate diet must supply 3 nutritional needs: 1. Chemical energy for cellular processes. 2. Organic building blocks for macromolecules. 3. Essential nutrients. Essential Nutrients Materials animals cannot make themselves from smaller molecules; must be consumed. 1. Fatty acids 2. Amino acids 3. Vitamins 4. Minerals 5. Carbohydrates 6. Water Needs for particular nutrients vary among species. Ex: Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is essential for humans and guinea pigs, but not for many other animals. ● Essentialatty acid (from lipids) are converted to: ○ Membrane phospholipids ○ Signaling molecules ○ Storage fats ● Can be synthesized by plants, but not animals. ● Plant material in animal diets usually contains plenty of these; therefore, deficiency is rare. ● Essentialmino acids is used to synthesize proteins. ○ Most animals can make about 10 of the necessary 20, if their diet contains enough sulphur and organic nitrogen. ○ Most animals need 8 amino acids in their diet (human infants also need histidine). Essential amino acids used to synthesize proteins: 1. Phenylalanine: Used to make epinephrine, thyroid hormones. 2. Valine: Repair damaged tissues. 3. Threonine: Involved in metabolism. 4. Tryptophan: Maintains serotonin levels. 5. Methionine: Antioxidant. 6. Leucine: Involved in production of growth hormone. 7. Isoleucine: Assists in recovering from strenuous activity. 8. Lysine: Maintains general health, immunity in pets. ● Protein in animal products (meat, eggs, cheese) are ‘complete,’ providing all essential amino acids in their proper proportions. ● Most plant protein is ‘incomplete;’ deficient in one or more amino acids. Vitamins: Organic molecules required in very small amounts. ● Vitamin A: fat soluble, maintains retina and bones. ● Vitamin D: fat soluble, energy, helps absorb calcium ● Vitamin E: fat soluble, immune and brain function. ● Vitamin K: fat soluble, antioxidant, blood clotting. ● Vitamin C: water soluble, immunity, forms collagen. ● Vitamin B: water soluble, protects nerves, resist stress effects Minerals: Inorganic nutrients usually required in small amounts. The difference b/w minerals and vitamins are non organic vs. organic. ● Iron: Essential for hemoglobin (carries O2 in blood). ● Sodium: Maintains osmotic balance. ● Potassium: Helps nerves transmit messages. ● Chloride: Muscle function. ● Sulfur: Make amino acids. ● Calcium: Bones, teeth. ● Iodine: Thyroid hormones. ● Phosphorus: Bones Dietary Issues Malnutrition: Inadequate or inappropriate level of nutrition. Undernutrition and undernutrition are types of malnutrition. 1. Undernutrition: Diet lacks one or more essential nutrients, which negatively impacts health and survival. 2. Overnutrition Many wild animals seek sources of nutrients in which their diets are deficient. Mineral licks: Sources of essential minerals from which animals supplement their diets. Ex: Horses salt blocks in their stalls. Ex: African elephants near Mt. Elgon travel into cave @ nighttime to get salts. Ex: Macaws in Peru eat clay to neutralize toxins in their food. Ex: Alpine ibex in Italy lick salts from the dam “really good climbers.” . Dietary Issues in Zoos Zoo animals nutrition could mean the difference b/w extinction and survival of species. ● Black rhinoceros, koalas, elephants, whales. ● In many cases, captive animals rarely breed or don’t breed successfully → their nutritional requirements? What does it need to eat to get it to breed so that the species can be saved? ● It is difficult to determine nutritional requirements; data from wild members of species needs to be known so that zoo animals can replicate those diets and therefore breed. ● Obtaining nutritional data on wild animal diets is challenging. ○ Large differences in diet b/w related species; large lemurs eat mostly plants, but small lemurs eat mostly insects. ○ A large number of different foods consumed; okapi eat leaves from over 100 plant species. What species are they eating and what minerals are they obtaining from it? ○ Formulas for mammal babies are complicated → different species have different needs/nutrients. Specific nutrient deficiencies: ● Vitamin E: Linked to infertility in rhinoceros, skin sores on deer, heart problems in elephants and pigs, muscle degeneration in marine mammals. ● Vitamin B: Nervous system disorders in marine mammals. ● Protein: Felids are hypercarnivores, need high proportion of animal flesh in their diet, especially amino acid taurine. ● Fat: Different species have different percentages of fat in milk; 60% in seals, 0% in rhinoceros. Even if nutritional needs are known, there is no guarantee if the animal will eat food/supplements provided. ● Most species evolved eating a variety of foods. ● Most evolved having to look for or hunt foods. ● Commercially available food pellets provide little stimulation and often not enough nutrition. ● Zoo nutrition is improving, and animal health with it. Dietary Issues Overnutrition: Too much nutrients in diet; also detrimental to health and survival. ● Unheard of in wild animals, but now a thing in zoos b/c animals are bored and eat more. ● Zoos must regulate food quantities to avoid obesity. ● Obesity is an epidemic in cats and dogs in the US and UK. Causes the same problems as obesity in people. ○ Due to overfeeding of commercial pet food. ○ From feeding human food. Nutritional Requirements Pet birds ● Speciesspecific ● Depends on wild diet: fruit nuts, nectar, etc. ● Notable deficiencies ○ Vitamin A: Decreased immunity, hyperkeratosis ○ Iodine: Goiter ○ Calcium: Phosphorus imbalance → bone deformation. Summary: Animals need many nutrients from their diet to live healthily and without issues. Among them are: carbohydrates, minerals, fatty acids, vitamins, and protein. Without the essential nutrients many issues can occur including: bone deformation, horse hoof cracking and therefore infection. Malnutrition and overnutrition are legitimate problems in animals, both causing serious issues.
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