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Week 5: End of the Civil War and Winning the West

by: Amy Brogan

Week 5: End of the Civil War and Winning the West HIST 2051-001

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > History > HIST 2051-001 > Week 5 End of the Civil War and Winning the West
Amy Brogan
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The end of the Civil War (1863-1865) and The Indian War (1865-1890). Including what it took to win the West, the cost of solder and Indian lives, and Manifest Destiny.
American Military History
James Streckfuss
Class Notes
civil war native americans manifest destiny indian war winning the west 1865
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Brogan on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2051-001 at University of Cincinnati taught by James Streckfuss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see American Military History in History at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Streckfuss Amy Brogan February 9 & 11, 2016 Civil War 1863-1865  1863: o Still anybody’s win o Union started to see slight movement in its favor; Antietam allowed emancipation proclamation, once in effect the slaves in the south can move on their own and the union then picks up laborers and eventually soldiers o Robert E Lee May Chancellorsville: edge fighting further north and set up ability to invade the north, moved into Pennsylvania and towards Gettysburg. Big price tag, lost stonewall Jackson, strong right hand man, killed in friendly fire, mistook for a union soldier o Gettysburg: union is benefitted by interior lines and has logistic advantage, battle opens on 1 of July, runs three days, holds record for greatest number of casualties for any battle in North American history. The union loses more than 23, 0000, confederates 28,000. Union can absorb loses easier. Confederates equal to loss of 1/3 of army, Lee never recovers a full army. Major development of eastern theater o Battle of Vicksburg: western theater  Union won the battle: gained full access to Mississippi, cut out confederates in 2, greater infiltration onto the south, Grant’s numbers game, confederate Gen John Pemberton’s entire army was lost  Vicksburg was heavily defended, the best strategy was to attack from land, divides his forces and attack on the flanks  The End of the Civil War (1864 1865) o Lincoln’s problem – Unity of Command  East has too much oversight and ineffective leadership  West is disjointed, but wining victories  Grant moves to Virginia and the war progresses well from there, Grant has a better understanding than McClellan about “modern war” concepts – engagement of the entire society  Grant’s plan: campaigning in Virginia, Promotion  Coordination efforts in the West  Grand Strategy rejected  Understood Total War concepts  Telegraph, Navy, and the Railroad  *other parts of the plan (shades are areas lost by the confederacy) o The Final Months:  The Shenandoah  Early threatens Washington – nobody cares  Sheridan receives sole purpose in life  The valley is devastated  Failure at Mobile  1864 election: Lincoln afraid he would lose the election, the war was going well for the union but it had taken four years, war against a general fired by the president, Lincoln needs another win to wrap up re-election, Sherman gives him Atlanta as political advantage;  Sherman and the Great Wheel to the East  CSA follow Union lead – replace Johnston with Hood  After Atlanta the logistics come into play. Sherman couldn’t afford a long supply chain. Attempts to garrison taken land diminished the troops for advance, operation thins out, Sherman elects to live off the land and them make sure there is nothing left behind them (slash and burn policy)  Liberated slaves: can’t afford to have these people trailing after the army to have protection, then there’s that many more to feed and to be slowed down by.  Field Order #15: gave 40 acres and farm animals to newly liberated slaves so they could grow for themselves. (If they can farm, then they can’t slow down the army, only for military gain so the army can advance) [later recanted, everything taken back] o Are slavery reparations overdue? Paid? Practical impossibility by now? o Often cited as reasons for reparations, but it wasn’t made for payment or request for forgiveness. Was made to help the army  Hood moves to Alabama in attempt to pull off troops from moving to the coast, but Sherman moves east pillaging along the way. Sherman moves to the coast and Savannah (250-mile wide march to the sea) then turns north and moves through South Carolina, succeeds in running down Lee until he is out of room and resources.  Tennessee: Battle at Franklin reduced Confederate Army to 30,000; Hood was defeated in Nashville  Battle of Five Forks: Sheridan broke through Lee’s flanks, Grant ordered his attack on Petersburg; Union troops entered Petersburg and Richmond  Appomattox: Sheridan continued to track Lee, destroyed the rear guard, and took on the front  Aftermath: Lee surrenders to Grant (April 1865), Davis is captured (may 10, 1865) and held as a POW for ten years after war ends o Civil War Legacy: *  Power of the federal government begins to expand, Lincoln the first to function as a hands on commander in chief.  Total War  Scorched earth vs. annihilation  Deprive enemy forces of I supplies and resources  Sociopolitical Factors  Assembled mass armies – power of the Federal Government  Created and enforced conscription acts  Mobilized societies to support the war  Individual loses identity  Thaddeus Lowe was a balloonist when the war started, offered his services to the union, regulated artillery fire. Out on the Potomac trying to convince the generals to let him ascend in his balloon and they don’t want to let him. Thaddeus goes to the White house and talks with Lincoln, Lincolns goes with him to the river and conter-commands the order  Photography : Matthew Bradey for planning purposes and documentation  Also: use of rifled muskets and artillery  trench warfare; naval warships, torpedoes, submarines, armor plating, balloons, and field fortifications/wire obstacles  Darkness and Light: 1865-1898 o Old Things: still chasing Indians and trying to control them o New things:  Lieutenant Henry Flipper: born 1886 – Georgia – goes to West Point and nd becomes first African American graduate, commission 2 Lt. in Calvary, post engineer, construction supervisor, acting assistance, 1881: court marshaled for embezzling funds unbecoming an officer and gentleman (or for being black), couldn’t make embezzling charges stick. June 1882 – thrown out of army; served in government posts afterwards, wrote a book about days in the army. 1999 = pardoned by Clinton. Maintained his innocence of embezzlement.  New: 1 black graduate of West Point  Old: Military still racist o Why we celebrate Cinco de Mayo:  Napoleon brought Maximillian to power  Sheridan and 50,000 soldiers against puppet Maximillian in Mexico  French leave without a fight, Max. left to own devices, and left to face a firing squad  Sherman to show force – no more war  Left spring 1867  Monroe doctrine: “You leave us alone, and we’ll leave you alone” – 1820  Keep European powers out of the west  Rebuild the army before every war because taken down after the last one o Reconstruction  Bring the states back into the union  Lincoln: soft reconstruction, treat south with kindness, not seek revenge  Andrew Johnson: sought to continue that policy after Lincoln’s assassination, radical republicans disagreed, wanted the South to pay, waned revenge  Army entrusted with keeping the w southern whites from attacking the freed blacks  Freedmen’s Bureau: already up and running before the war ends; first fed social agency (protect and educate) – supposed to mean that the slaves would be trained and given new skills and receive job placement help; practical: were never realized, the south’s economy had to be rebuilt, south was physically and working-ly destroyed (no more slaves) o Berlin Wall: West Berlinians wanted to be one city again, but several wanted to keep hold on their booming economy; in the east, the unemployment is high and ruble is still everywhere, maybe we don’t want them back o Comparisons of resources (North vs. South*)  North has several advantages over the South  Cotton is done, can convert to food growing, but then what? Factories: will take a lot of time, and money that the south doesn’t have  Best short term solution? : hire the freed slaves to put plantations back in business, just pay them this time  FB: instead of helping them, they send the slaves back to the plantations into adhesion contracts, is the offer you can’t refuse, brains or signature on the contract. Contracts were set up so that once you signed it, you couldn’t work anywhere else, and south was enacting laws making it illegal for anyone to mess with that contract (outside leaders can offer hired slave a job)  Slavery doesn’t end, it just takes new form  Keeping slaves able to vote and not terrorized  Tenure in office act  Reconstruction Act: March 1867: try to take the president out of the reconstruction works and let general Grant take control  Third Act; congress district commanders weren’t answerable to the president, odd because Pres is commander in chief, Grant is, rd reconstruction army is 1/3 of force  Resistance to anti racial equality, especially voting equality, to them the war hadn’t ended  Ku Klux Klan when other things couldn’t keep them from the vote, Jim Crow Laws  Keep down domestic disturbances o Fight against labor union strikes (frequent and violent) o Federal troops called in when local authorities couldn’t hold them back  More Professional Development o National Guard Movement – Thanks NY – first state to name the militia the national guard o “Business Pacifism” – military irrelevant in a time of business deals, army becomes disconnected from society, also physically isolated from populated centers  Everything military is wasteful  Protestantism – war is evil  Indifference or outright hostility o The Dark Ages o Read the Law: apprentice with another lawyer until you’re ready, and also in the medical field, not schools for either until this point, minimum education requirements o The Age of Enlightenment  Sherman succeeds Grant as General in Chief, training in schools when not in war  Lots of military colleges, higher earning for soldiers  Emory Upton: wrote textbooks about Asia and Europe (1904: argued for professional standing army, shot down case for militia) had a role for militia, the become part of expandable army  John Logan: Volunteers Soldiers of America  Stephen Luce form the Navy 2/11/2016  Moving forward o Journals: about different aspects of the military o Model the US army after the unification of Germany, also the School system we have today (Kindergarten is a German word) o Late 19 century: beginnings of progressivism – Emory Upton and William Sherman  Removal of politics  Pendleton Act  Expanded schools outside of West Point  Compulsory retirement  Sunset proposition  Examination for promotion  Incorporating technology  Upton vs. Logan = Military v. Militia  Morrill Act of 1862 – beginnings of ROTC  Began during the Civil War  Technological development o Model 1873 Springfield breechloader  Beginning of National guard lagging behind o 1898 Krag-Jorgenson Rifle o Gatling Gun o Smokeless powder: doesn’t smoke up vision o Automatic weapons – making improvements in artillery; welcome as they were, not seeing as much advance here as with the armies of Europe, they engage in an arms race at the end of the 19 century, Germany tried to go into colonization, start manufacturing Navy, England gets nervous and also starts funding navy building o Military never gets so deep into research and development that it’s leading the way.  Wright brothers builds the first plane, takes years before the military buys their first plane; inventors of modern machine gun try to sell their gun to the military, more buyers in Europe  Doesn’t tell the industry what they want to have  Navy making strides in Ship design: powerful guns and engines, greater use of armor plating, end of the century finds us the largest industrial nation  HMS Dreadknot: first of big gun battle ships – first by England, copied quickly by Germany o 5000 miles of telegraphs  Things other than War o Civil accomplishments contrary to purpose of an army: usually the jobs of civilians but we weren’t in war so the army needed something to do  Government catch-all department o Army ran Alaska for 10 years o Corps of engineers expanded o Surveys o Medical department  Open discussion: o What role should the US Army have in domestic disturbances?  There were police departments/forces  1980’s Ken State riots: UC Shuts down because National Guard fired on students o To what extent should the Army be involved in “civilian’ occupations?  Did we really need to take military men and have them do civilian work?  Undiscovered territory: unknown threats that makes sense to send the army  Fighting the Indians because we were trying to fulfil Manifest destiny o What does military professionalism mean?  Classically trained military force, not just farmer-joe out of the field  Big first for the nation, first time not pulling in untrained civilians to defend the nation Winning the West – 1865-1890 Military’s role is clearing the path to the land we know we own between Canada and Mexico  The Army in the West o Other interests first – Napoleon reconstruction, the Fenian Brotherhood  Precursor to Irish Republican army, wound up in North America because of the Potato Famine, brought their political conflicts with them  Irish raided parts of Canada to try to gain land for themselves o Large collection of isolated conflicts  Non monolithic culture or society  Diverse collections of Native American communities, as many as groups of Whites (Baptists vs. Catholics, Irish, immigrants) (Shawnee, Navajo, etc)  Spring from White aggression in the area, we entered into treaties we had no push to upkeep (from the beginning and as opportunities arose)  Moved away from their ancestors’ land to less desirable land (Trail of Tears: Georgia to Oklahoma) o 1865 – we have run out of land  After the Civil war, more land than ever before, better position to use to best advantage because not dealing with slavery anymore (Slave and free states)  But either already squeezed Native Americans or in the process of doing so: parting with less desirable land to give to them o Relatively small and isolated  How to relieve boredom and isolation o Series of Forts  More forts in the areas where anticipating conflicts  Fort duty = boring, and no opportunity for promotion  Responsible for large tracks of territory, small numbers of soldiers  Forts for bases of operations against Indians  The Bozeman trail o Gold in Bozeman, Montana o Best route went through lands reserves for Sioux, Arapaho, and northern Cheyanne tribes o Red Clouds (leader) walks out of peace talks  Forts go up during talks  Warriors win at Red Hills o Loose association made treaties hard o Indian tribes always assumed to be wrong o “Galvanized” Yankees  Confederate POWs offered opportunity to get out of jail, given a gun but out in the middle of nowhere to combat the Indians  Draftees, no stake in outcome of war (came from lower white classes without a plantation)  POWs as work detail is common o Road abandoned in 1868, even though it was cleared o Henry vs. Spencer = longer barrels  Spencer is short and can be fired from horseback, use in the calva  Henry for sitting on the ground  But the Indians keep winning  The Southern Plains o Balancing Resources  Most likely vs. most catastrophic  We don’t; have 100,000 Calvary o Kansas-Pacific Railroad  Almost completely depleted the buffalo in the west  Indians uses all parts of the buffalo  Shooting parties to just shot for sport, left to rot o Sand Creek Massacre of 1864  200 men, woman, and children under Black Kettle (Cheyanne) murdered by military forces o 9 /10 Calvary – Buffalo soldiers  African Americans troopers/units  Union army mobilized freed slaves under command of White officers, once the war was over, the usual thing was to let the army go  Now the AA units to keep them active, cultural shift or at least the beginnings of one (not integrated till Korea) o From removal to reservation  Removal act: whole state of Oklahoma for them  Reservation: specific tracks of land inside thee states is for the Indians  Communities not accustomed to living close together are forced to live next to one another, leads to bloodshed  Some tribes refused to moves, the army called to force compliance o Waging total war in the winter  Indians fight during the warm months and suspend fighting during the winter months, as well as the Americans, and in WWI. WWII leads to winter wars  General Sheridan planned to attack during the winter months when the Indians are most vulnerable and won’t fight back, camps and food supplies are low and they are going to raid the Indian stores. Tactics started in the Civil War (Sherman) campaigns continued through winter months o Red River War  Army intensified movements against Indians in Texas pan-handle  Indians attacked and almost wiped out  The Northwest o Modoc Indians and Captain Jack  Modocs left the reservation and took advantage of natural geographic features  Army lost several battles despite army advantages  Captain Jack shot two unarmed peace negotiators, was executed o Nez Perce and the Wallowa Valley  Chief Joseph and Guerilla warfare  Rifles vs. Army’s Gatling guns, troops also had telegraph  “…I will fight no more forever…” – Chief Joseph o Bannocks, Sheepeaters, and Utes  Nathan Meeker wanted Utes to develop from moving around to subsistent farming, wanted them to abandon their culture for out rules o Indian Agent Nathan C. Meeker  Culture Class  Thornburgh’s Battle  Calvary ambushed and killed one way to save settlers under attack by Utes  Southwest o Apaches – Coshise, Geronimo, Victorino  Geronimo was a war name (Nam de Greer); really Goyathalay  Nicknames for Spanish St. Gerome – right before he killed you he would give you a change to pray to your saint  Apches were fierce fighters, never as many of them as the army  Conflicts last 1860s’1880’s o General Crook – lowest ranking graduate to make MG in the Federal Army  Administration vs. Enforcement  Achieved both peacetime negotiator ad well as leading Indian scouts (Apaches mostly) in war time o Indian Scouts  Engagement of Giboo Creek, the scouts turned on the regulars and defected to the other side  Bureau of Indian Affairs 1824 _ Interior department – problems over who is responsible for the aspect of dealing with the Indian communities, what is interior and what is army  Violates: unit of command o 80’s – Geronimo surrenders, appears at the world’s fair, was able to keep 10 cents out of the charge of a quarter for pictures and autographs  Made as much as $2 a day  Sitting Bull did the same thing at the end of his campaign  Northern Plains o Custer’s Last Stand (7 Calvary): Little Bighorn: overconfidence, wanted the press to see him witness the victory  Ignored scouts  Custer would move in from the south, but others would move in from the north; but Custer moves a day early and runs into a force of Sioux and other tribes that had been vastly underestimated.  Army responds by pressing harder for Sioux to return to the reservation o Their greatest victory led to their defeat o Wounded Knee  Ghost dance (tradition) made settlers nervous. Army called in to stop it, a gun went off accidentally and the fight started. 180 Indian died  Dec. 29, 1890 – end of the war  Discussion Questions o Harsh treatment vs. Hearts and Minds  Negotiate and attempt to understand their ways of life vs. instant fighting  Were we 19 century terrorists?  Army not policy makers, Washington would have had to decide  Wounded Knee didn’t have to end in a massacre, Washington could have honored the treaties o Manifest Destiny o Difference between Civil War and Indian Wars


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