CJ3024 Notes from 2/11 (lecture 9)
CJ3024 Notes from 2/11 (lecture 9) CCJ3024
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ3024 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Marvin Krohn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Advanced Principles of Criminology Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
9. Biological/Trait and Biosocial Theories lecture notes from 2/11 Biological trait theories • Franz Joseph Gall phrenology ◦ Brain has local functions • Cesare Lombroso atavism ◦ Criminals = throwbacks in evolution ◦ Identifiable by "physical stigmata" ◦ Arm span longer than height, unusual size/shape of head, strange eyes, ears that are too big/small • Anyone looking physically different looking assumed a criminal • These eventually were replaced by social theories • We now incorporate biological aspects Biosocial theories • Response to the "standard social science method" which only focuses on social risk • Assumes there are no inherited, biological risks • Problems • Ignores genetics and biases social research • Ignores the environmental factors • People aren’t a criminal if they don't look like you anymore Behavioral genetics • Interested in estimating 3 hypothesized sources of behavior • Genetics • Shared environment • Nonshared environment • "twinning" (method) • Compares monozygotic (identical) and fraternal twins • Identical share 100% of DNA • Fraternal share 50% of DNA • ACE modeling • A = genes • C = shared environment • E = non shared environment • Fraternal = A + C • Identical = 1/2 A + C • "equal environments assumption" • Assumes twins raised in same home are assumed to have same life experiences • Some issues • Twins may be treated differently • Twins may interpret things differently • Luck/misfortune • To avoid criticism: adoption designs avoids making equal environment assumption • Association between biological parents and twins are considered to be genetic • Association between adopted twin and adoptive parent considered to be environmental Gene by environment • Genotyping birthed this area of research • Interaction of gene and environment • Certain inherited traits are more likely to respond to the environment and become a criminal • DNA: blueprint of function of your body • Gene: series of nucleotide "base" pairs which specifies the production of proteins • Allele: variation on a gene • Some genes vary in their coding function which = allelic differences • Risk allele (diathesisstress model) • Variation of a gene which increases the risk that an individual will become a criminal • Relationship between criminality and child abuse (graph) • As presence of child abuse grows so does the likelihood of becoming a criminal severity depends on where the graph tends to lean • Sensitivity allele (differential susceptibility) • Variation of a gene that increases an individual's sensitivity to environment • Inverse relationship between criminality and parenting quality (graph) Candidate genes • Dopaminergic genes • Dealing with brain functions resulting from dopamine • Serotonergic genes • Brain functions based on serotonin which makes you more excited to make you act quicker/not stop yourself as much from making bad decisions • Enzymatic breakdown genes • Focuses on how enzymes break down to affect the brain Neurocriminology • Study of the brain function of criminals • Example: • Prefrontal cortex functioning is thought to be responsible for inhibition • Low activity in this region is associated with impulsive crimes
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