Developmental Psychology Week 4 Notes
Developmental Psychology Week 4 Notes Psych 220
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at University of New Mexico taught by Cheryl Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Psychology 220- Developmental Psychology Tues/Thurs 9:30-10:45am Week #4 th There are no notes to offer for this week. On Tuesday, February 9 we took the first exam (covered chapters 1-4) and on Thursday, February 11 , we watched a video called Great Expectations, which was about Japanese childhood development regarding their environment. I will double post the study guide on these notes anyway just for those who take the test today or want to review them. Have a good weekend! Review for Exam 1 (Chapters 1 – 4) Mrs. Cheryl Bryan Version Directly from slideshow presentations NOTE: I’m not sure if other professors will emphasize other concepts from each chapter however for this particular Psych 220 class she told us there wouldn’t be anything on the test that isn’t on here. Understand the elements that make up the study of human development 1. The Study of Science – empirical research 2. All Kinds of People – universalities and differences 3. Change Over Time – from birth to death Multidirectional Development Dynamic not static The Butterfly Effect o Tiny event enormous impact Continuity in Wartime o Extreme event little impact o Not only does the event itself matter, but how the event is perceived by the person affected matters equally o Resilience The dynamic systems approach- a view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial influences. Sequential Cumulative Irreversible Directional Multicontextual Development Ecological-systems approach: a perspective on human development that considers all the influences from the various contexts of development. Cohort: people born within the same historical period who therefore move through life together, experiencing the same events, new technologies, and cultural shifts at the same ages. Microsystem Exosystem Macrosystem Mesosystem Chronosystem Multidisciplinary Development (Three Domains) Biosocial (physical) Cognitive (mental) Psychosocial (social) Plasticity The idea that ability, personality, and other human characteristics can change over time. Plasticity is particularly evident during childhood, but even older adults are not always “set in their ways.” Scientific Method 1. Ask a question -On the basis of theory, prior research, or personal observance 2. Develop a hypothesis 3. Test the hypothesis Methodology: validity, reliability, generalizability, and usefulness 4. Draw a conclusion 5. Make the findings available Types of Research, including research designs: Cross-sectional & Longitudinal Observational Experimental Survey Case Study Cross-sectional: A research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics o Advantages: less time-consuming, less expensive, less sample attrition (drop-outs), and no practice effects due to repeated testing. o Disadvantages: cohort effects (something different between the age groups), can’t study individual variation, hard to tap into processes that produce development. Longitudinal: A research design in which the same individuals are followed over time, as their development is repeatedly assessed. o Advantages: no cohort effects, can study individual variation, easy to tap into processes that produce development. o Disadvantages: time-consuming, expensive, more sample attrition, practice effects due to repeated testing. Cross-sequential: a combination method Metatheoretical Frameworks Modern meta-theories: o Nativist –primary source is endogenous o Empiricist –primary source is exogenous o Constructivist –primary source is interaction (organism constructs own development; PROCESS) o Contextualist –primary source is interaction (co- construction; NO INVARIANT SEQUENCE) Grand theories Psychoanalytic Theory A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior. Freud: potential conflicts in each stage o Personality and behavior is determined by how people perceive and resolve conflicts o The conflicts are between our aggressive pleasure-seeking biological impulses and internalized social restraints against them. Erikson: conflicts at each stage o Resolution is somewhere between the extremes o Conflict resolution depends on individual and social environment o Emphasize family and culture, not sexual urges Behaviorism A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. It describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned. Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Positive/negative reinforcements Cognitive Theory A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, values, assumptions, and behaviors. Cognitive equilibrium Assimilation Accommodation Harlow’s research In Harlow's initial experiments, infant monkeys were raised with surrogate mothers made either of heavy wire mesh or of wood covered with cloth. Both mothers were the same size, but the wire mother had no soft surfaces while the other mother was cuddly, covered with foam rubber and soft terry cloth. In one experiment both types of surrogates were present in the cage, but only one was equipped with a nipple from which the infant could nurse. Even when the wire mother was the source of nourishment (and a source of warmth provided by an electric light), the infant monkey spent a greater amount of time clinging to the cloth surrogate. These results led researchers to believe the need for closeness and affection goes deeper than a need for warmth. Social Learning theory An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns through observation and imitation of other people (also called observational learning). Piaget Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development o Sensorimotor o Preoperational o Concrete operational o Formal operational Sociocultural Theory A newer theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces o Culture offers unique design for living, influenced by parents, peers, teachers, media, etc. Epigenetic Theory The interaction of genes and the environment (dynamic and reciprocal) o Genetic: responsible for instincts and abilities, developmental changes o Environment: nutrition, injury, parental love (plays an equal role in development) Nature-Nurture controversy The basic question: how much of any characteristic, behavior, or emotion is the result of genes, and how much is the result of experience? Not a question of nature or nurture, rather a combination of both to different degrees. All of chapter 3 discussed in class DNA Chromosomes Genes Alleles Epigenetics o The study of how environmental factors affect genes and genetic expression—enhancing, shaping, or altering the expression of genes and resulting in the phenotype that may differ markedly from the genotype. Genotype - an organism’s entire genetic inheritance; the complete set of genes in an individual Phenotype - the observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits Polygenic Multifactorial Dizygotic twins Monozygotic twins Germinal Period First 2 weeks of prenatal development after conception Characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation o Outer cells placenta o Inner cells embryo Embryonic Period rd th 3 to the 8 week Basic forms of all body structures develop, including internal organs o Embryo: mass of cells that start to form into a being o Primitive streak: the thin line in the middle of the embryo Becomes neural tube central nervous system (brain and spinal column) Ectoderm –outer layer Endoderm –inner layer Mesoderm –muscles, bones, circulatory system Cephalocaudal- “from head to tail” o The head develops first Proximodistal- “near to far” o The extremities form last— from the center of the body (spine) outward Fetal Period 9 weeks until birth Fetus gains about 7 pounds and organs become more mature to function on their own rd 3 month- body parts developing, not yet functional Middle 3 months- cardiovascular, digestive excretory systems o Age of viability Final 3 months- neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems mature Teratogens; including the critical period & threshold effect Agents or conditions (viruses, drugs, chemicals) that can harm prenatal development and result in defect or death. Threshold Effect - some teratogens are relatively harmless in small doses but becoming increasingly harmful once exposure reaches a certain level— “crosses the threshold.” Critical Period - the time of development when a particular body part of the fetus is most vulnerable (THE EMBRYONIC PERIOD) Stages of Labor Stage 1 -Begins when uterine contractions cause cervix to dilate -Ends when cervix has opened to about 4 inches (its widest capacity) Stage 2 -Begins as soon as cervix dilation is complete -Ends with birth of baby Stage 3 -Involves expulsion of the placenta, membranes Apgar Scale An assessment of a newborn’ health both 1 minute after birth and 5 minutes after birth Each worth max of 2 points (0, 1, 2 scale) Each tested 5 minutes apart Color Heartbeat Reflex Irritability Muscle Tone Respiratory Effort 7-10 GOOD Below 4 CRITICAL CARE
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