Chemistry 121- February 08-12 Week Notes
Chemistry 121- February 08-12 Week Notes CHEM 121
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Swanson on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 121 at University of North Dakota taught by Shaina Mattingly in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see General chemistry in Chemistry at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
February 08-12 Chemistry 121 Chapter 3 Notes: Atoms and Ionic Bonds: Ions, Molecules, and Chemical Bonds: - Atoms in molecules are bonded together by covalent bonds- which result from sharing two or more electrons between two atoms (nonmetals) Ionic Compounds: Made of charged particles called ions (one metal + one nonmetal) - Gains/loses electrons - Held together by the attraction of positive and negative charges Molecules: Made up of two or more nonmetals Diatomic Molecules: These elements exist naturally as two atoms of each element bonded with one covalent bond (you can remember these elements using BrINClHOF) - Bromine (Br )2 - Iodine (I2) - Nitrogen (N 2 - Chlorine (Cl 2 - Hydrogen (H ) 2 - Oxygen (O ) 2 - Fluorine (F2) Cation: a positively charged ion- it has lost electrons (metal) Anion: a negatively charged ion- it has gained electrons (nonmetal) Monoatomic: one atom Polyatomic: more than one atom covalently bonded together, but the whole atom has an overall charge Group 1A: All form a charge of +1 (Hydrogen can be either + or -, but always 1) Group 2A: All form a charge of +2 Group 3A: All form a charge of +3 (Ti can form either +1 or +3 charge) Group 4A: Sn forms charges of +2 and +4 and Pb forms charges of +2 and +4 as well Group 5A: N and P form a -3 charge Group 6A: All form a charge of -2 Group 7A: All form a charge of -1 Transition Metals: Can sometimes form more than one ion Naming Ionic Compounds: - Name the Cation: a) If the atom is a main group cation it is the name of the element (Na=Sodium) b) If it is the a transition metal cation the ion is the name followed by its charge in Roman numerals in parenthesis (Cu= Copper (I) or Copper (II)) - Name the Anion: a) Combine the first part of the name of the element and add “-ide” to the end (Cl= Chloride) Ionic Compound Formula= Cation (+) + Anion (-) Examples: + - 1. K + Cl = KCl (Potassium Chloride) 2. Al +3+ O = Al O (2l3minum Oxide) +2 -2 3. Cu + S = CuS (Copper (II) Sulfide) Naming Polyatomic Ions: “-ate” more oxygen “-ite” less oxygen “hypo-“ ends in “-ite” always “per-“ end in “-ate” always EXAMPLE: ClO 4erchlorate ClO 3hlorate - ClO 2hlorite - ClO Hypochlorite Compounds with Polyatomic Ions: (EXAMPLES) NH 4+ + S -2 (NH ) S 4 2 Ammonium Sulfide +3 -2 Fe + CO 3 Fe 2CO )3 3 Iron (III) Carbonate Electron Configuration of Ions: - Start with atom electron configuration - For CATIONS remove outermost electrons in order p,s,d - EXAMPLE: o Al (Z=13) [Ne]3S 3P 1 +3 Al [Ne] - For ANIONS add electrons to reach next noble-gas configuration o N(Z=7) [He]2S 2P 3 -3 2 6 N [He]2S 2P => [Ne] Ionic Radii: - CATIONS are SMALLER than their neutral atom - Main group cations => electrons are removed from valence shell to expose new, smaller shell (n-1) - Increased effective nuclear charge by removing valence electrons: held more tightly to nucleus - ANIONS are LARGER than their corresponding neutral atoms - Increase electron/electron repulsion - Held weakly/further from nucleus
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