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Psyc 100

by: Kate Notetaker

Psyc 100 PSYCH 100

Kate Notetaker
GPA 3.6

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Sensation and Perception
Introduction to psychological science
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.

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Date Created: 02/11/16
2-­‐11-­‐16       Developmental  Psychology       Single-­‐Parent  Upbringing   o 2013-­‐  30%  of  all  households  were  single-­‐parent  households     o Life  is  often  very  difficult  for  the  single  parent!     1. They  tend  to  work  longer  hours  (at  a  lower  wage)  than  the  typical   married  parent   2. They  tend  to  live  father  away  from  their  own  parents  than  married   parents  (so  there  is  less  family  support).     *Baruth’s  10  Research-­‐Based  Steps  of  Advice  for  the  Single  Parent*   1. Be  honest  about  the  situation     2. Assure  children  they  are  not  responsible  for  breakup     3. Be  honest  about  own  feelings     4. Maintain  the  same  routine  and  surroundings  (kids  like  structure)   5. Don’t  try  to  be  both  mom  and  dad   6. With  divorce,  don’t  encourage  children  to  hope  for  reconciliation     7. Reassure  child  that  they  will  continue  to  be  loved  and  cared  for     8. Don’t  use  the  child  for  bargaining  power  with  ex-­‐spouse     9. Make  use  of  grandparents/relatives  to  maintain  a  sense  of  family     10.Seek  companionship/counseling  of  other  single  parents.  They  can  be  a  good   source  of  friendship  and  advice           Ch.  6  Sensation  and  Perception   o Before  1950…   o Sensations  and  perceptions  were  viewed  as  independent  processes     o “Sensations”  were  viewed  only  as  the  stimuli  (sounds,  tastes,  colors,   smell,  etc…)   o “Perception”  referred  to  interpreting  the  combined  stimuli  so  that  it   acquired  meaning  for  the  person.     o James  J.  Gibson  argued  that  this  distinction  was  unnecessary!     o He  said  that  sensation  and  perception  really  should  be  viewed  as   different  parts  of  the  same  process     o Perceptual  Systems:   o Structure,  function,  and  operations  by  which  people  perceive  their   world     o To  fully  develop  our  perceptual  systems  need  to  learn  to  work  with   one  another     o A  number  of  studies  support  this  notion:     § For  example,  Held  and  Bauer  studied  the  eye-­‐hand   coordination  of  two  groups  of  monkeys     • Control  Group-­‐  raised  normally  from  birth     • Experimental  Group-­‐raised  with  large  white  collars   around  neck     § Six  months  later,  when  collars  were  removed,  the  experimental   monkeys:   a. First  started  at  their  bodies  for  extended  periods   b. Showed  very  poor  coordination  in  visually-­‐guided   reaching.     o This  points  to  the  fact  that  early  experience  is  critical  to   the  ultimate  development  of  interacting  perceptual   systems  later  in  their  life     o Human  studies  confined  to  case  histories  of  adult   cataract-­‐removal  patients  (people  who  gained  vision  for   the  first  time  as  adults).     o While  these  people  have  multiple  deficiencies,  one  of   the  primary  ones  is  in  visually-­‐guided  reaching.     o Additional  evidence?   o Sensory  deprivation  studies  with  newborn   kittens   o Kittens  totally  deprived  of  light  from  birth  and   never  develop  lenses  or  retinas.     o Kittens  deprived  of  sound  never  develop   eardrums   o These  studies  show  that  when  deprived  of  all  sensory   experience,  the  kittens’  physiological  structures  do  not   develop  fully     Sensory  deprivation  in  humans?   1960s  Heron  studies:     o College  students   o Dull  room  with  air  conditioning   o Plastic  visor  on  eyes     o Arms  and  legs  covered  with  tubes     Results:     o After  3-­‐6  hours:     o Complex  tasks  could  not  be  performed   o Subjects  became  irritable  and  restless     o After  24  hours:     o Reported  seeing  cartoon-­‐like  images  (not  under  their   control)     o Became  eager  for  stimulation  (sing,  tap,  whistle,  and   talk)   o Displayed  random  movement     o After  48  hours:     o Everyone  quit   o Conclusion:  the  absence  of  regular  sensory  stimulation  changes   the  behavior  patterns  of  humans!       The  Human  Visual  System     o The  perceptual  system  receiving  the  most  research  attention.     o Any  perceptual  process  starts  with:     o Stimulus  (light)     o A  system  that  responds  to  that  stimulus     o Visual  System  Stimulus  à  Light  (electromagnetic  energy)   o  Response  System  à  Human  eye     o Visual  cortex  is  in  the  occipital  lobe   • Transduction-­‐  the  process  by  which  the  visual  systems  analyze  stimuli   (light)  and  converts  it  to  electrical  signals  in  the  retina  (so  that  visual   information  can  be  sent  to  the  brain).     • The  retinal  cells  (neurons)  that  begin  the  process  of  transduction  are  called:     o Photoreceptors  (light  receivers)     § Cones:     • 6  million  per  eye     • Responsible  for  color  vision     • Used  for  day  vision  only     • Aid  with  fine  discrimination  (detailed)     § Rods     • 120  million  per  eye   • Responsible  primarily  for  night  vision     • Used  fro  black/white  (contrast)  form  perception     o Duplicity  Theory:     § Theory  that  vision  is  controlled  by  two  (and  only  two)  classes   of  photoreceptors  (rods  and  cones)     o Color  Vision   § Properties  of  Color:   • Hue   • Brightness   • Saturation     § Light  Wavelength  -­‐>  Hue   § Light  intensity  -­‐>  Brightness     § Light  Complexity  -­‐>  Saturation     o Hue:     § This  is  the  “color”  of  an  object.  It  is  determined  by  the   wavelength(s)  of  light  that  an  object  reflects:     § Process:   1. Sunlight/artificial  light  produces  the  full  spectrum  of   wavelengths     2. When  such  light  hits  a  “red”  object,  the  object  absorbs   all  the  wavelengths  except  those  of  about  750   nanometers  (nm)   3. Wavelengths  of  750  nm  are  reflected  off  the  object,  go   through  the  pupil,  and  are  interpreted  by  the  retina.     4. We  see  “red”     • Brightness     o Refers  to  how  light  or  dark  a  color  is.  It  is  determined  by  the   intensity  (strength)  of  the  light.     • Saturation       o Refers  to  the  “pureness”  of  a  color.  It  is  determined  by  the   complexity  of  the  reflected  light.     o Some  objects  reflect  a  saturated  pure  red!   § Ex.  Only  750  nm  reds  bounce  off  the  object     o Most  objects,  however,  reflect  a  mix  of  wavelengths     o So  the  reflected  light  is  more  complex  (producing  less  saturated   colors).     § For  example,  we  may  see  pink  if  yellow  waves  are  reflected   off  of  an  object  along  with  red  waves     • Color  Coding     o There  are  3  different  types  of  cones  in  our  retinas  (each  of  which  is   maximally  sensitive  to  certain  wavelengths)   § Some  sensitive  to  short  waves  (blue)     § Some  sensitive  to  medium  waves  (yellow/green)   § Some  sensitive  to  long  waves  (red)     o Known  as  Young-­‐Helmholtz  theory  of  color  vision  (aka   trichromatic  or  three-­‐color  theory)     o The  specific  combination  of  firing  of  the  three  types  of  cones   allows  us  to  perceive  any  color  of  the  spectrum.     o An  alternative  theory  of  color  vision  was  proposed  later  by   Hering…   § “Opponent-­‐Process  Theory”     § Hering  also  argued  that  we  have  three  different  types  of   cones  but…   • He  proposed  that  color  is  coded  in  a  different  way   o i.e.  he  produced  a  lot  of  evidence  showing   that  cones  have  both  positive  and  negative   charges…   • And  thus,  argued  that  there  are…   o Red/green  cones     o Blue/yellow  cones   o Black/white  cones     • After  decades  of  research,  it  was  finally  concluded   that  the  Young-­‐Helmotz  theory  best  explains  color   coding  at  the  retinal  level.                    


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