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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
2-‐11-‐16 Developmental Psychology Single-‐Parent Upbringing o 2013-‐ 30% of all households were single-‐parent households o Life is often very difficult for the single parent! 1. They tend to work longer hours (at a lower wage) than the typical married parent 2. They tend to live father away from their own parents than married parents (so there is less family support). *Baruth’s 10 Research-‐Based Steps of Advice for the Single Parent* 1. Be honest about the situation 2. Assure children they are not responsible for breakup 3. Be honest about own feelings 4. Maintain the same routine and surroundings (kids like structure) 5. Don’t try to be both mom and dad 6. With divorce, don’t encourage children to hope for reconciliation 7. Reassure child that they will continue to be loved and cared for 8. Don’t use the child for bargaining power with ex-‐spouse 9. Make use of grandparents/relatives to maintain a sense of family 10.Seek companionship/counseling of other single parents. They can be a good source of friendship and advice Ch. 6 Sensation and Perception o Before 1950… o Sensations and perceptions were viewed as independent processes o “Sensations” were viewed only as the stimuli (sounds, tastes, colors, smell, etc…) o “Perception” referred to interpreting the combined stimuli so that it acquired meaning for the person. o James J. Gibson argued that this distinction was unnecessary! o He said that sensation and perception really should be viewed as different parts of the same process o Perceptual Systems: o Structure, function, and operations by which people perceive their world o To fully develop our perceptual systems need to learn to work with one another o A number of studies support this notion: § For example, Held and Bauer studied the eye-‐hand coordination of two groups of monkeys • Control Group-‐ raised normally from birth • Experimental Group-‐raised with large white collars around neck § Six months later, when collars were removed, the experimental monkeys: a. First started at their bodies for extended periods b. Showed very poor coordination in visually-‐guided reaching. o This points to the fact that early experience is critical to the ultimate development of interacting perceptual systems later in their life o Human studies confined to case histories of adult cataract-‐removal patients (people who gained vision for the first time as adults). o While these people have multiple deficiencies, one of the primary ones is in visually-‐guided reaching. o Additional evidence? o Sensory deprivation studies with newborn kittens o Kittens totally deprived of light from birth and never develop lenses or retinas. o Kittens deprived of sound never develop eardrums o These studies show that when deprived of all sensory experience, the kittens’ physiological structures do not develop fully Sensory deprivation in humans? 1960s Heron studies: o College students o Dull room with air conditioning o Plastic visor on eyes o Arms and legs covered with tubes Results: o After 3-‐6 hours: o Complex tasks could not be performed o Subjects became irritable and restless o After 24 hours: o Reported seeing cartoon-‐like images (not under their control) o Became eager for stimulation (sing, tap, whistle, and talk) o Displayed random movement o After 48 hours: o Everyone quit o Conclusion: the absence of regular sensory stimulation changes the behavior patterns of humans! The Human Visual System o The perceptual system receiving the most research attention. o Any perceptual process starts with: o Stimulus (light) o A system that responds to that stimulus o Visual System Stimulus à Light (electromagnetic energy) o Response System à Human eye o Visual cortex is in the occipital lobe • Transduction-‐ the process by which the visual systems analyze stimuli (light) and converts it to electrical signals in the retina (so that visual information can be sent to the brain). • The retinal cells (neurons) that begin the process of transduction are called: o Photoreceptors (light receivers) § Cones: • 6 million per eye • Responsible for color vision • Used for day vision only • Aid with fine discrimination (detailed) § Rods • 120 million per eye • Responsible primarily for night vision • Used fro black/white (contrast) form perception o Duplicity Theory: § Theory that vision is controlled by two (and only two) classes of photoreceptors (rods and cones) o Color Vision § Properties of Color: • Hue • Brightness • Saturation § Light Wavelength -‐> Hue § Light intensity -‐> Brightness § Light Complexity -‐> Saturation o Hue: § This is the “color” of an object. It is determined by the wavelength(s) of light that an object reflects: § Process: 1. Sunlight/artificial light produces the full spectrum of wavelengths 2. When such light hits a “red” object, the object absorbs all the wavelengths except those of about 750 nanometers (nm) 3. Wavelengths of 750 nm are reflected off the object, go through the pupil, and are interpreted by the retina. 4. We see “red” • Brightness o Refers to how light or dark a color is. It is determined by the intensity (strength) of the light. • Saturation o Refers to the “pureness” of a color. It is determined by the complexity of the reflected light. o Some objects reflect a saturated pure red! § Ex. Only 750 nm reds bounce off the object o Most objects, however, reflect a mix of wavelengths o So the reflected light is more complex (producing less saturated colors). § For example, we may see pink if yellow waves are reflected off of an object along with red waves • Color Coding o There are 3 different types of cones in our retinas (each of which is maximally sensitive to certain wavelengths) § Some sensitive to short waves (blue) § Some sensitive to medium waves (yellow/green) § Some sensitive to long waves (red) o Known as Young-‐Helmholtz theory of color vision (aka trichromatic or three-‐color theory) o The specific combination of firing of the three types of cones allows us to perceive any color of the spectrum. o An alternative theory of color vision was proposed later by Hering… § “Opponent-‐Process Theory” § Hering also argued that we have three different types of cones but… • He proposed that color is coded in a different way o i.e. he produced a lot of evidence showing that cones have both positive and negative charges… • And thus, argued that there are… o Red/green cones o Blue/yellow cones o Black/white cones • After decades of research, it was finally concluded that the Young-‐Helmotz theory best explains color coding at the retinal level.