Week 6 Arch 218 Notes
Week 6 Arch 218 Notes ARCH 218-02
Popular in History of World Architecture: Middle Ages-18th Century
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bobbi Ellias on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 218-02 at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo taught by Yip, Christopher L. in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see History of World Architecture: Middle Ages-18th Century in Architecture at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
week of: 02/08/16 French Renaissance: Key Questions: How did French Renaissance architecture change from its early to its mature phase? What was a Parisian “place,” and who was instrumental in their development? What characteristics mark the French Baroque, and how did the French Baroque transform the notion of the garden? What are the characteristics the Rococo and why did it arise? iClicker Questions: 1. How many phases were there in the French Renaissance? (Answer: 2 phases) 2. What was a Parisian “place”? (Answer: A designed open space surrounded by shops and businesses with residences above) 3. In your opinion, French Baroque was…? (Answer: More rigid than Italian Baroque) 4. French Baroque Garden was…? (Answer: Structures: 1. Name: Chateau Chambord Location: Domenico da Cortona, Loire Valley, France Importance: Hunting Lodge for King Francois I; incorporates Italian innovations within limits; steep roof- in France because it rained and snowed, Italian ﬂat roof wouldn’t work due to weather. Also, many chimneys due to weather. Windows at top stories for servants. Gothic style ornateness. Renaissance- attached columns and round arches (not pointed arches), and rugs on walls (to keep warm temperature on inside). Double spiral staircase on inside- attributed to Leonardo da Vinci *looks like the castle in disneyland 2. Name: Cour Carree, Louvre Palace Location: Paris, France Architect: Pierre Lescot Importance: Only Late French Renaissance Design proportions much more high/narrow. French have larger window areas than Italians (colder, get less sunlight) so need larger windows to let more light in; exterior with decor= sculptures and “fussy” decoration; arched roof- blue slate and angle allows water/snow to drain oﬀ top in weather. Renaissance aspects- uses classical sculpture; using columns and rounded arches. High narrow week of: 02/08/16 proportions. After architect died, the king had another architect double the length and set size of main courtyard of louvre. (this step came after Place des Vosges) Kept growing afterwards and became the biggest style of housing in paris for nobility. a. Name: East Facade, Louvre Palace (part of Louvre from above) Architect: Claude Perrault, Le Vau, and Le Brun Location: Paris, France Importance: Bernini created 3 plans to “apply” for project, but wasn’t chosen. French Baroque Classicism: 1. Stoic, didactic design 2. More restrained, self-imposed limitation on architectural vocabulary (double columns) 3. Ordered variety achieved through subtle adjustments in rhythm and proportions of mass and wall surface Expanded Louve: King would tear down houses to get more building room. Garden- goal: extend out all the way to the horizon so you could see inﬁnity. Idea of “conquest of nature” and king has “total control of monarchy” b. Name: Place des Vosges (Place Royale) (part of Louvre from above) Location: Paris, France Importance: (Original nobility housing) King wants to take power away from nobility-by having them move to Paris. Make Paris a “fashionable” place to live to attract nobility. Built townhouses and sold them oﬀ to nobility to further attract the move. Lower level=shops. Large townhouses, including one for king and one for queen (higher and bigger) on sides. Dirt in middle (originally) held outdoor events for entertainment. Raised arches (rounded), high roofs, chimneys, covered shops to stay out of heat (summer) and avoid rain/snow (winter). Creates fashionable court for nobility who couldn’t aﬀord to build full palace. Made money for king/queen (took money from nobility) 3. Name: Vaux-le-Vicomte gardens/structure Architect: Louis le Vau Location: Le Notre, France Importance: week of: 02/08/16 a. Garden: Adopts Italian square format divided into smaller squares. Nothing natural-all consciously ordered. Even bushes and plants are clipped and cut into pyramid shapes (not natural but highly controlled and maze- like) b. Structure: Greco-Roman Temple Front; Waterways around structure. Strict and correct use of the orders, according to French Manuals. Blue slate roofs. Oval dome: Italian Baroque. 4. Name: Chateau de Versailles Location: Versailles, France Importance: King Louis hated paris so he built this to get out of the city. Building itself is 1/4 mile long. During day, held 10,000 people. Place for nobility, king and government. Huge entryway. a. Garden Facade at Versailles Architect: Le Vau and J.H. Mansart Importance: Clarity, structure, order. total control of nature. Hall of Mirrors. LargeArched windows. Built garden to grow oranges and lemons (in winter) to prevent scurvy. Had huge waterways and waterworks. Built water wheels to pump water in Versailles to pump canals and fountains. (Ex: Lotana Fountain; Lower Fountain-Apollo Fountain) i. various structures built within gardens (getaway house for Louis-if he needs to get a break from the 10,000 people in his main house and also a small house behind this for his mistress b. Royal Chapel Architect: Jules-Hardouin Mansart Location: Versailles Importance: interior is nothing like Italian BaroqueArchitecture. Structure is a gothic church with extra detail. This focusses on clarity and order. 5. Name: Hotel de Soubise Location: Paris, France Architect: pierre-Alexis Delamair Importance: personal house. Rococo style: use of light curvilinear decoration on walls and ceilings, lightened color schemes, more mirrored surfaces, softened angels based in part on plant forms. reactions against formality of Louis XIV’s court. Walls with white week of: 02/08/16 background and gold decoration around. Lecture 11: English Renaissance, Baroque and Neo-Palladian Key Questions: How did the English Renaissance architecture of Inigo Jones view and interpret Italian developments? Deﬁne the English Baroque and the role of Gibb’s St. Martins-in-the-Fields. What was English Neo-Palladianism? iClicker Questions What are elements of Elizabethan Style? (Answer: Long halls, wood walls, large windows, ﬁreplaces, decoration, perpendicular gothic proportions) In comparing the English baroque to the French, the English is… (Answer: more about preference. no exact answer) Structures; 1. Name: Little Moreton Location: Congleton, England Importance: Late medieval building forms and techniques remained popular 2. Name: Compton Wynyates Location: Warwickshire,England Importance: represent English style 3. Name: King’s College Chapel Location: Cambridge, England Importance: Represent English Style- Done in English Perpendicular Gothic. The 1534 Act o Supremacy made the King the head of the Church of England creating hostility between Pope and Church. Huge Window ares. Highly organized. week of: 02/08/16 4. Name: Hardwick Hall Location: Derbyshire, England Architect: Robert Smythson Importance: Competition among elite to build great houses to show off to Queen Elizabeth I to try to marry her. Began Elizabethan style- combining Renaissance symmetry, Flemish decoration and English Perpendicular Gothic Proportions. Very Large windows (to compensate for bad weather. Fireplaces. Inside: Wood walls, rugs on walls (warmth). Long hall on inside- sign of wealth. 5. Name: Queen’s House Location: Greenwich, England Architect: Inigo Jones Importance: Early Italian RenaissanceArchitecture. Rejected Contemporary 17th Century design. Designed similarly to Palazzo Chiercati from Palladio’s- in Italy. Known for it’s simplicity. He makes even more simple. Great entry hall= perfect cube. “Dead and motionless” feel. 6. Name: Whitehall Palace Location: London, England Importance: 2 gigantic cubes, side by side. a. Banqueting House (inside Whitehall Palace) Architect: Jones Importance: Drew upon ideas in Palladio’s Four Books OnArchitecture. Huge double cube. Celine paintings by Rubens. 7. Name: Plan for London Location: London, England Architect: Christopher Wren (loved Baroque- well known) Importance: Introduced French landscape and urban planning. Diagonal boulevards, widened streets and a quay along the Thames River. No plan was executed (after ﬁre in London)- no one wanted to give up their property. **Importance of London Fire; after ﬁre, people get a lot of insurance money and are able to build bigger houses, closer together, without ﬁxing the narrow streets and crowding problems that caused the ﬁre. This leads to problem in week of: 02/08/16 next ﬁre. 8. Name: Church of St. Stephen Walbrook Location: London Architect: Christopher Wren Importance: Can’t take photo from out front directly because of crowding of city. Wren experiments with dome. He uses calculations to produce new proportions and equations in architecture. Windows with lots of windows for light. **after this design, Wren gets to design St. Paul’s Cathedral: Warrant Degisn: cruciform Medieval plan with projecting transept arms topped by a spire originally, but later changed to a dome. Ends up being a longitudinal, Midieval castle. With a giant dome in middle. Wren= Great Baroque Architect of England. interior: elaborate decoration. rich english baroque decoration: covered surfaces. White ﬁnish with gold. Broken up space= english cathedral. 9. Name: Blenheim Palace Location: Hawksmoor, Woodstock, England Architect: Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor Importance:Architect’s had worked for Christopher Wren- so ideas of English Baroque continue. Landscape is most extravagant place. Gift to English general who had beaten the French. Temple front. Layers of windows stacked on top of each other. **English baroque Architecture is about Additive complexity Interior: Complex to show Duke’sAchievement and appreciation for his beating France in battle. Elaborate decorations. week of: 02/08/16 10. Name: St. Martin-in-the-Fields Church Location: London, England Architect: James Gibbs Importance: First protestant church that puts spire over the temple front- result: This idea spread all across British Empire. 11. Name: Chiswick House Location: London, England Architect: Lord Burlington, William Kent Style: Middlesex/Neo-Palladianism Importance: Rejected Baroque style associated with Catholicism and absolutism. Shows short term existence of Baroque style in England.
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