PSYC 1001: Week 5
PSYC 1001: Week 5 PSYC 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Seal on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Ramezan Dowlati in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
PSYC 1001 Dr. Ramezan Dowlati Class Notes for February 9-11 Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Development (February 9) Development = learning something new or developing a new skill based on something old; mistakes are necessary for development to move forward Piaget’s theory of cognitive development: o The “major challenges” are missing at the beginning of the stage and develop during it/are present at the end o 2 stage: preoperational “Operation” references mathematical operations Major challenge: conservation and egocentrism Adults can be egocentric or even ethnocentric as a result of ignorance “Hill” or “mountain experiment” tests for egocentrism Theory of mind also develops during the preoperational stage o 3 stage: concrete operational Major challenge: conservation th o 4 stage: formal operational p → q q → r content p → r = form Children understand the form with the content Formal reasoning (operation) is understanding the form without the context, or the ability of abstract thinking (“outside the box”) Understanding possibilities that don’t exist, ideas, concepts, etc. Formal reasoning begins the real diversity of thinking between teens and their peers, and teens and adults Ability to use variables and forms in mathematical operations (like an x, y, z plane) Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development emphasized social influences o “Scaffolding” = children need support to develop through Piaget’s stages (parents, schools, etc.) o Scaffolding allows children to get to the proximal zone of development (a place where they can best develop) Emotional and Social Development Attachment is the first relationship between child and caregiver and is the base of all social development o Not based on food/nourishment (Harry Harlow’s experiment with monkeys) o Attachment is based on comfort and contact Social development (especially secure attachment of baby to mother) facilitates cognitive development o Babies play with their toys better when the mother is around, or if they know the mom is there o Security is necessary to reach cognitive potential Deprivation of attachment: o Children taken care of by others (government, orphanage, etc.) o Children of divorce Self-concept: differentiation between self and others o Darwin used a mirror to test self-awareness Parenting styles reflect varying degrees of control Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Thinking: o Before age 9: preconventional morality (based on consequences) Everything is OK as long as it doesn’t have a consequence o Early adolescence: conventional morality (based on laws and rules) o Postconventional morality is based on personal sense of right and wrong Based on understanding, NOT behavior As long as the understanding is there, people may or may not behave accordingly to postconventional morality but they still have it Erikson’s theory of life-span development: o 8 stages cover the entire life from birth to death o There is a challenge of each stage Infancy: trust vs. mistrust Adolescence: identity vs. role confusion 65+: integrity vs. despair (looking back on life) Sensation and Perception (February 11) Concepts that apply to all senses: Sensory adaptation: you sense but do not consciously notice constant, unchanging sensory stimuli Absolute threshold: minimum intensity for a stimulus to be noticed 50% of the time o Absolute threshold for taste: ½ gram of sugar or salt in 1 gallon of water o Absolute threshold for sound: a watch ticking anywhere in a 1 bedroom apartment o Absolute threshold for vision: car headlights hundreds of miles away in total darkness or a candlelight over 10 miles away in total darkness o Stimuli below the absolute threshold are subliminal (subconsciously perceived) but conscious memories only form for stimuli above the absolute threshold Difference threshold, AKA just noticeable difference (jnd) o Weber’s Law = 2 stimuli must differ by a constant percentage specific to each sense in order for a difference to be noticed Transduction: translation or conversion of the energy of external stimuli to electrochemical energy that the neurons/brain can understand Both bottom-up and top-down processing occur simultaneously and constantly Bottom-up processing: understanding of the outside world works using sensory data/information we receive (sensation) Top-down processing: processing of information is guided by mental processes to analyze/make sense of the outside world (perception) Vision Blind spot is where the optic nerve leaves the eye, so there are no receptor cells there o We don’t notice the blind spot for 3 reasons: o The blind spot of each eye is different from the other, so together they make up the whole picture o Your eyes are constantly moving around o Even if you are looking at one spot, your eyes vibrate minutely so the blind spot is still always moving The back of the retina has receptor cells called rods and cones that perceive light energy and transduce (convert) it to electrochemical energy o Cones are for color and detail o Rods are for dim lighting
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