KINE 2000, Week 5 Notes
KINE 2000, Week 5 Notes Kine 2000
Popular in Intro to exercise and sports science
Popular in Kinesiology
This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tamar Turner on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Kine 2000 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Espinosa in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Intro to exercise and sports science in Kinesiology at East Carolina University.
Reviews for KINE 2000, Week 5 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 02/11/16
Chapter 1: Intro to Kinesiology 01/20/2016 ▯ What is Physical Activity? ▯ -Almost any muscular action is physical activity ▯ -By definition, it is intentional, voluntary, movement directed towards achieving an identifiable goal. ▯ Movement- any change in the position of your body parts relative to each other ▯ ▯ -All physical activity is movement but not all movement is physical activity. ▯ ▯ What is Kinesiology? ▯ -A discipline or body of knowledge that focuses on physical activity. ▯ Consists of: ▯ -Experiential knowledge= experiencing physical activity ▯ -Theoretical knowledge= systematic research about physical activity ▯ -Professional practice knowledge= process of delivering physical activity services ▯ ▯ The Focus of Kinesiology: Exercise and Skilled Movement ▯ -Exercise is one principal form of physical activity. ▯ -People engage in exercise to improve physical performance, improve health, or regain performance that has been reduced due to injury/disease ▯ ▯ Major Categories of Exercise: ▯ Training- exercise performed for express purpose of improving performance ▯ Health-related exercise- to develop or maintain a sound working body, free of disease ▯ Therapeutic exercise- to restore capacities previously developed that have been lost due to injury, disease, etc. ▯ ▯ Skilled Movement ▯ -Second area of focus of kinesiology ▯ -Performances where accuracy of direction, force, rhythm, and timing are essential to accomplishing predetermined goals ▯ -Sport involves skilled movement that is organized in game contexts. ▯ -Developmental skills involve skilled movements that aren’t usually performed in sport settings. ▯ Ex. 1 graders being taught how to skip, hop, or throw ▯ ▯ Holism- interdependence of mind, body, and spirit ▯ ▯ Spheres of Physical Activity Experience ▯ -Competition -Self-sufficiency ▯ -Health -Work ▯ -Leisure -Self-expression ▯ -Education ▯ ▯ Spheres of Scholarly Study of Physical Activity ▯ -Biomechanics -Philosophy of physical activity ▯ -Motor behavior -Physiology of physical activity ▯ -Sociology of physical activity -Sport and exercise psychology ▯ -History of physical activity ▯ ▯ Spheres of Professional Practice Centered in Physical Activity ▯ -Health and fitness -Therapeutic exercise ▯ -Sport management ▯ -Coaching and sport education ▯ Teaching physical education ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Clicker Questions: -Philosophers take intangibles seriously; these include emotions, ideals, values, and daily experiences. -Materialism: this view reflects the belief that subjective experiences are of little value an that humans are complex machines -Deductive reasoning starts with broad, general principle and examines specific facts that follow from it. True -A comparison of play-like sport to duty-like sport finds that play-like sport considers: sport participation justified by its intrinsic value Objectives -Philosophy involves asking questions posing challenges searching for deeper meanings. -Describe how Philosophy is a formal field/sub-discipline of Kinesiology Why should we study Philosophy? -The definition of philosophy is the study of wisdom, knowledge, and the truth. -Critical thinking us pull the “blinders” away from our eyes, break with conventional ideas and follow new ideas. -It helps develop well-reasoned arguments. -It can help us become more open minded. -it can makes us entertain, examine, and accept new ideas, theories, that might have been ignored of rejected. Philosophical Thinking in Physical Activity -Reflection is the key -Various types of reflection are used. -Decisions are based on good judgment and logic. -Valid and reliable results are expected (even without controlled experiments as in the physical sciences). Power of Reflection -Allows for a broader range of phenomenon to be studied. -Forces us to examine our own beliefs in greater depth and to develop well- reasoned arguments for them. -Helps us become more open-minded: We entertain, examine, and possibly accept ideas, theories, and positions we may have previously ignored or discarded without good reason. Reflection -Tools -Logic -Speculation -Imagination -Thinking -Philosophic methods typically do not include the gathering of data from controlled experiments, but the results can still be valid and reliable. Philosophic Claims About Values in Physical Activity -Personal opinion -Speculation -Probable assertion Truth assertion Goals of Philosophy of Physical Activity in Kinesiology 1. To understand the nature and value of health and physical activity, particularly in the form of exercise, sport, games, play, and dance 2. To understand how confident we can be about our claims in kinesiology 3. To understand the most important values of physical activity and its contribution to good living 4. To learn how we ought to behave in sport and in our professional lives as kinesiologists Research Methods -Inductive reasoning begins with specific cases to develop broad, general principles. -Deductive reasoning begins with broad factual or hypothetical premises in order to determine more specific conclusions that follow from them. -Descriptive reasoning begins with one example of some phenomenon and then varies it to see how dramatically it changes. Change allows a more accurate description of the central characteristics of the item being examined. Overview of Knowledge in the Philosophy of Physical Activity -Nature of the person (specifically, the mind-body relationship) -Nature of the sport and competition and its relationships to work and play -Values promoted by physical activity -Ethical values and sport People are composed of two substances: BODY and MIND -Materialism: the human being is nothing more than a complex machine; subjective experiences are real but have no power -Dualism: the mind and body are separate; our thoughts count; priority is given to the mind -Holism: the mind and body are interdependent; all behavior is ambiguous; the mind and body work together Significance of Rules -Rules serve as formal types of game cues: What should be accomplished and how we should accomplish it? -Rules create a problem that is artificial yet intelligible -Respecting the rules preserves sport -Rules liberate us and allow us to explore our capabilities in a protected environment -Rules can be change when the challenge becomes too easy or too difficult Game Characteristics -Mild Physical Exertion -Limited skill -Luck -Recreational activity -Some rules – change them? -Enjoyment or Entertainment -A game may not be a sport Hobbies & Competition Hobbies: -Activity or interest -Done outside one’s regular job -For fun -For pleasure Competition: -Requires two parties, but not necessarily against each other -Can be done by yourself -Surpassing a performance -It can determine winners and losers Play and Duty in Sport Duty-Like Sport: -We participate for the benefits, we do it for what it does for us. Play-Like Sport Health Related Physical Fitness Four Components -Body composition -Flexibility -Cardio -Muscular strength Motor Skills -Balance -Hand/Eye Coordination Do we as Professionals have Responsibilities? -The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) 1. Non-Discriminate: on the basis of race, color, sex, age, religion, or national origin 2. What type of conduct? -Personally and professionally in a manner that does not compromise their professional responsibility 3. Truthful in what? -Education and Experience Professional Knowledge and Expertise -Kickboxing class Physical Activity Values -Ethical -Aesthetic -Sociopolitical Ethics -Ask us what is right and wrong, and what ought and ought not be done -Help us answer the question “How should we behave?” Examples: -Should children be cut when trying out for a sport? -Should a coach teach an athlete how to intimidate the opponent player? Should an athlete be required to pass all school subjects in order to play? Ethical Behavior in Sport -Fair play: playing within the rules -Seeking to win within the rules and not “at all costs” -Opponents should be treated with respect -Games are played as mutual quests for excellence, is intimidation inappropriate? -Retribution for violent or unfair action is never acceptable Clicker Questions -Intercollegiate athletics were inaugurated on American college campuses by: students -According to Dr. Grimsley ECU student were mainly women. What is true about the male population in 1975? 75 males enrolled and 12 played football. -ECU joined first conference in 1954, which was: North State Atlantic Conference -In 1966, ECU yearly tuition and fees were: $147.00 -By the 1860s, many amateur baseball teams were on their way to becoming professionalized; common practices by that time included charging admission and paying players -From 1900 to 1950 scholarship was influenced by: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Harvard Fatigue Lab Why we study the history of physical activity? -The history of physical activity teaches us about changes as well as stability in the past, which helps us understand the past as well as the present and make reasonable decisions for the future. What does a historian of physical activity do? -College or university faculty members -Teaching -Research -Service Others -Librarians -Consultants to publishing companies -Library archivists -Museum curators Goals of History of Physical Activity -Identify and describe patterns of change and stability in physical activity in particular societies or cultures during specific periods -Analyze patterns of change and stability in physical activity in particular societies or cultures during specific periods. History of the Subdiscipline -Early beginnings: Late 19 century to 1960s -Identifying the subdiscipline: 1960s to 1970s -Expanding the subdiscipline: 1970s to present -New analytical frameworks: modernization and human agency -Greater focus on gender -New focus on exercise and health Research Methods in History of Physical Activity -Finding sources of evidence -Primary source -Secondary source -Critiquing sources -Authenticity -Credibility -Rule of context -Rule of perspective -Rule of omission or free editing -Examining, analyzing, and synthesizing the evidence History of Physical Activity in North America -Critical time periods -1840-1900: industrialization and westward expansion -1900-1950: consumerism, immigration, and democratization -1950-2007: electronic communication and globalization -Focus -Participation in physical activity -Physical activity professions -Scholarly knowledge about physical activity 1840-1900 -Physical activity participation -Integration of body, mind, and soul -Recommendations for vigorous exercise for boys and men -Recommendations for moderate exercise for girls and women -European gymnastics systems 1900-1950 -Physical activity participation -Competitive sport for males/females -Sport at the center of school and college physical education curriculums -Military and World War I -Golden Age of Sport -The Great Depression -Teaching physical education continued to be the main profession for which students were prepared in college physical education th programs during the first half of the 20 century 1950-2012 -Participation -Increase in health-related exercise through 2000, followed by a decline in Americans meeting recommended activity levels -Increase in sport participants and spectators -Girls and women in sport; Title IX (1972) -African Americans in sport -Growth of televised coverage of sport -Increase in outdoor recreation Title IX: Educational Amendment of 1972 (a) No person in the United Stated shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance Physical Activity Career Growth -Beginning in the 1960s, the discipline of kinesiology grew rapidly, and numerous scholarly subdisciplines developed. Reasons to Study the History of Physical Activity -Learn about the discipline’s past -Learn about societal influences on physical activity -Learn about YOUR past -Consider what might happen in the future History Extends Your “Memory” -Knowledge of the past gives you an important, broad understanding of the present that you can use to make better informed personal and professional decisions for the future.