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The Changing Universe

by: Elizabeth Swanson

The Changing Universe 12590

Elizabeth Swanson

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About this Document

The different beliefs of how the universe is laid out and the outcome of the Scientific Revolution.
The Modern World
Kara Barr
Class Notes
The Universe, solar system, history, world civilization, Aristotle, Ptolemaic Universe, Medieval Science, medieval, Renaissance, Niccolo Machiavelli, Nicholas Copernicus, Copernican Universe, Tycho Brache, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, Francis Bacon
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Swanson on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 12590 at Bowling Green State University taught by Kara Barr in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see The Modern World in History at Bowling Green State University.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Vocab. Hierarchical: Arranged in order of rank. Aether: A pleasant-smelling, colorless, volatile liquid that is highly flammable. It is used as an anesthetic and as a solvent or intermediate in industrial processes. Theology: The study of the nature of God and religious belief. Heliocentrism: The astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System. Epistemology: The study of how the human mind gains knowledge. The Scientific Revolution The Changing Universe The Aristotelian Universe  Aristotle was a Greek philosopher from the 4 century BC.  He believed that the earth is located in the center of the universe.  Believed in a hierarchical arrangement of spheres, which were ordered by purity. o Progressively purer  5 Elements: o Earth o Water o Air o Fire o Aether The Ptolemaic Universe  During 85-165 AD  Philosophers attempted to measure the size of the orbits (which were believed to be spherical) of the planets.  It was determined that there were 80 crystalline spheres that encased the earth. Medieval Science  Medieval science continued to use ancient models of the universe, as they believed that science and beliefs and etc. were better in the past, and were only incorrect or flawed if newer.  There was a very thin line between science and theology, and they usually worked together at this time, unlike most other times, such as present day, where there is a very large distinction between the two. o It was believed that there was a dual meaning of the universe o And science was used to understand (or better understand) God  It was also believed that nature both could, and should, not be controlled and/or altered by people. The Renaissance th th  The Renaissance was between the 15 and 16 centuries and was a time of cultural change in many ways, especially in art.  It was influenced by the findings of many ancient texts, which is why ancient models of the universe and other ideas where brought back and believed. o These texts were found because of conquering new areas, or the texts becoming available for everyone, unlike the few they were available to before.  This change led to an influx of Eastern science and math advancements. Niccolò Machiavelli  1469-1527 AD  There were many power struggles at this time, and the Medici family had been in charge for a while, until they were taken down and replaced.  The Medici family returned in 1512, and Machiavelli was exiled for his involvement in their removal.  Machiavelli’s response in 1513, was to write The Prince, which can be taken many ways. o Some say it was satire o Some say it was mocking the Medici family o Some sat it was Machiavelli’s failed attempt to please the Medici family and get his job back Nicholas Copernicus  1473-1543  He was a priest and scientist (remember those went hand in hand back then)  In 1543, Copernicus published “On the Revolutions of the celestial Spheres”, which is where he proposed his theory of heliocentrism. The Copernican Universe  The Ptolemaic system (talked about earlier) failed to include some of the things Copernicus observed, such as: o The planets, moon, stars, etc. don’t move around the earth at the same speed o The orbits of said objects in space, are not spherical, but elliptical  The Copernican System decided that the sun, not the earth, is in the center of the universe, and that the earth rotates on its axis once every 365 days. o This system also claimed that there is a finite (not infinite, and has a number) and the stars were fixed and not moving. o This system was mathematically flawed Tycho Brache  1546-1601  Brache was a Danish scientist and court mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor, who rejected Copernicus and his ideas.  He came up with his own theory of the universe. Johannes Kepler  1571-1630  Kepler succeeded Brache as an imperial mathematician  Unlike his predecessor, Kepler agreed with Copernicus  He believed the orbits of the planets were imperfect, and that the planets and stars had little in common. Galileo Galilei  1564-1642  In 1609, he improves the telescope  He believed that the universe was always in a state of change and fluctuation.  In the 1610’s, Galilei begins to openly argue for heliocentrism.  In 1633, Galilei was placed under house arrest because of his support of heliocentrism, as it went against what the church said was correct. Francis Bacon  1558-1603  Bacon was an English humanist in the courts or Elizabeth I and James I.  Epistemology is the study of how the human mind gains knowledge.  Bacon emphasized experimentation. Outcomes of the Scientific Revolution  There were many outcomes, and some were more practical applications, such as a chart of the ocean tides, or technological advances in equipment used in experimenting.  Animal life became collected and dissected for better understanding of the natural world o This also lead to medical applications for physicians  States began to realize that scientific discoveries could give them a competitive advantage over their neighbors if used correctly and properly applied. Review Why did ancient believes and methods become popular in the medieval times? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ What were the five elements that Aristotle claimed existed? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ What was The Prince? What do scientists think its purpose was? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Which system of the universe is the closest to what we currently know to be true? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________


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