Developmental Psychology: Chapter 6 Notes
Developmental Psychology: Chapter 6 Notes PSYC 3206
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3206 at East Carolina University taught by Gary Stainback in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Developmental Psychology Psychosocial Development during the First Three Years Chapter 6 First signs of emotion: crying o Emotional development in young children is going to be moving from a relatively simple level to more complex patterns more complex behavioral patterns o The emotional part is what the person is feeling inside but young children can’t assign names to their emotions so we project based on their behavior what we think they are feeling o For some infants crying will be very persistent during the day and night and are not associated with hunger and pain but are a gastro-intestinal sort of thing o When persistent crying has occurred and the parent is unable to stop the child from crying this is typically when abuse occurs The parent is becoming very frustrated Shaking baby syndrome Emotions: first month o During the first month infants will cry to human voices – typically most comforted by their mothers voice (in the womb they could hear her voice) – they will be able to notice different dialect among other women even if they sound very similar to their mother o Parents often put monitors or sound like machines where the infant is sleeping so it drowns out other sounds and prevents the baby from being awakened by other sounds Is nice for some but then will they begin relying on it as they get older in order to sleep? Smiling and laughing o Typically don’t see social smiles first in infants – more during things like REM sleep or if they burp or fart o When they reach about 2 months of age there will be some visual recognition so If they see a familiar person they may smile when they see that person Still won’t really be able to see 20/20 though o Social smiles begin around 4-12 months Self- emotions o Self- awareness Video clips on blackboard What infants do at various ages, what happens when they see themselves in a mirror Children at young ages won’t react at all As they get older they will see the reflection but will think it is another person they won’t really realize it is themselves Later on they will figure it out o Self-consciousness Brain Growth and Emotional Development o The brain is still developing o In the womb the infant can feel and hear so some parts of the brain is being used to do that o Now that they are born the brain really has to function completely o The infant begins to experience their environment and they are trying to gain control by having the brain integrate all this information coming in o Initially the eyes are operating independently – they get to the occipital lobe of the brain and are synchronized together This all takes place within the first three months o 9-10 months frontal lobes begin to interact with the limbic system Sleeping, waking, etc. Allows these things to go along with more cognitive development o By the second year they are more aware of self-consciousness and awareness o By age three there are hormonal changes that are coincided with brain activities Pride, shame Altruistic behaviors o Someone does something for someone without expecting anything in return o See a lot of this in young children- they are eating a cookie and another child comes along they automatically share o As they get older this changes some o But altruistic behavior is really seen a lot in young toddlers As parents we want to try and keep that in place as long as possible Temperament o In young children we can’t get into doing personality assessment o When children get to be school aged then you can do some forms o However, personality doesn’t really fully develop until later on o Until about 3 years of age there is almost hardly any assessment you can do o Three temperaments Easy Generally happy When things change (new people, surroundings, etc.) they can make adjustments to this Nothing is really THAT disasterous Make transitions without too much disturbance Slow to warm up Turn away from new people – don’t really fight someone trying to hold them but aren’t doing anything to encourage the behavior Want to be put down Show mild reactions If a stranger came up to them they would hide behind mom and dad- don’t really talk. Once they are around the person more then they will warm up to them but are reluctant to interact initially Difficult No matter who is around they are hard to please Even mom and dad have a hard time Often can’t verbalize what they want so their behavior patterns are often negative Brief periods of happiness but not sustained for long periods Goodness of Fit o What is the temperament of the child and then what is the parenting style of the parent o Just about any kind of parent can get along well with an easy going child o If you have a patient responsive reactive pre-planning kind of parent and a very difficult child this parent could probably raise this child without too much difficulty If this parent is very stern and strict with a difficult child who doesn’t follow directions very well then there will probably be a lot of head butting and this is not a very good fit. o If you want to change behavior in a child then all caregivers need to be on the same plan for what to do when certain behaviors occur The mother’s role: Harry Harlow o Plain wire mesh surrogate mother that can provide nourishment o Another surrogate mother that was cloth that did not provide nourishment o If baby monkeys are separated from their mother and placed with these surrogates what will their behavior be like? If the baby monkeys got stressed they went immediately to the cloth surrogate So when an infant feels stress they want a nice feeling comforting thing o When looking at post partem depression and the biological mother is so depressed that she just sits there breast feeding but giving no comfort – like a manikin just giving milk The father’s role o In most cultures the male figure is the dominant one o When do children do better, raised by two parents or one? Two o Doesn’t matter what the gender is Two is better than one Gender differences o Boys are bigger, longer, heavier than girls – not a whole lot but enough to make it statistically significant o Boys tend to be more aggressive than girls do in the way they play o Eventually we will see slight cognitive differences between boys and girls By a certain age boys will begin wanting to only play with boys Girls won’t really care Basic trust vs. basic mistrust o Erikson o Lifelong stages of development o This is the first stage o Occurring during infancy o If an infant’s cries are attended to fairly consistently then this infant will grow up with a fairly good sense of trust in the world An infant who cries and their needs go unmet then they will develop mistrust Attachment o Mary Ainsworth o Video on blackboard o Strange situation experiments Attachment in strange situations o Secure attachment children will be comforted relatively easily when the parent enters the room – go up to them hug them 60-75% of children studied fell into this category o Avoidant When parent leaves they aren’t really distressed by it and when the parent returns they may ignore them o Insecure resistance Hovers around the mother and is very angry when mother returns o Disorganized See very inconsistent reactions – sometimes secure sometimes avoidant sometimes freaking out, very unpredictable o Avoidant, insecure, and disorganized children are ones that need to be worried about when it comes to trust Will be more resistant to making an attachment- not feeling good about themselves and if you don’t feel good about yourself you won’t be able to share yourself with someone and build a good relationship Anxiety o Stranger anxiety See this take place around 6-12 months of age A developmental bench mark is usually around 7 months o Separation anxiety Distress when familiar caregiver leaves Mutual regulation of emotions o Social referencing o I don’t know this person is this okay o Some children have little to no stranger anxiety – so a stranger may come up and the toddler runs over and hugs them This is distressing to a parent, what if my child runs off or is abducted Emergence of self concept o Infant doesn’t have self-concept, this is something that builds upon itself (basically an image of ourselves) o Basically what they can do themselves but is mostly what they have heard and what people have told them about themselves The child builds this in to what they can do o What is a good girl or boy supposed to do? They will see themselves as being a good boy/girl because they were told they are even if what they did wasn’t something good Window on the world: toddler struggles o “terrible twos” o One of the first words a two year old begins to say “no” – they learn to shake their head no before yes o Two year old is more mobile – if there are siblings there might be some sibling rivalries o Terrible twos is just a stereotype Second stage of Erikson o Autonomy v. shame o Looking at the child shifting from external control to internal control o Where potty training comes in Moral development o Follows how well they are able to socialize and what expectations and rules have parents given the child about being a good boy or a good girl o When they engage in a behavior they do so because they want to avoid punishment Later on they begin to do it because there may be a reward (praise) Developing self-regulation o Okay I’m getting mad and if I stay here it is only going to get worse so I am going to leave o You can control and anticipate your behavior – you redirect yourself in another way Commitment and situational compliance o Situational compliance Have two boxes of toys one the child can play with and one the child can’t The parent then leaves and the child usually listens and only plays with the toys he was told he can play with Then another child comes in and plays with the forbidden toys, that child leaves Usually the child will go and play with the toys but when they hear mom coming back will stop and go back to the other ones Sociability with siblings o Becomes a vehicle for understanding social relationships outside the home o Constructive conflict helps children with empathy o The larger the difference in age the less it feels like you are raising two children Going through different phases at different times Not a whole lot of interaction between the kids at the same time o How you get along with your sibling will be one of the longest lasting relationships of your life If you can’t get along with your sibling how will you get along with a significant other later in life? With a sibling you learn to work things out Sociability with non-siblings o Very attentive to what children who are not their own age are doing o Might keep to themselves for a time but are still attentive to what is going on and eventually will interact o Some children with autism spectrum disorder will be very uninterested and want nothing to do with other children Effects of maternal employment o In some cases the mother has to o The type of work has a huge effect o If a mother is working more than 30 hours a week this can have some detrimental effect Will effect boys more than girls o Some parents work shift work and are hardly ever around when the child is awake – everyone is on different sleep schedules Types of child abuse o Physical o Neglect o Sexual Mostly males but not always o Emotional maltreatment o causes behavioral, cognitive, or mental disorders and may include rejection as well o this often leads to intervention from child protective services/social services their main goal is to reunite the family with the child often times the child is placed with a relative they want them to all be able to be together but first the parents must take steps to prove they will be better traits of abusive and neglectful families o most of the time abuse is done by a parent o those who typically do this have a number of problems marital problems poverty they themselves may have a disability alcoholism, drug abuse, mental disorder
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