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Week 4 notes

by: Taylor Curtis

Week 4 notes History 104

Taylor Curtis
GPA 3.3

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Notes from week four!
American Civilization Since 1865
Kari Frederickson
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Curtis on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kari Frederickson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see American Civilization Since 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
1/27/16 *TA Mark Johnson Creating a Modern Industrial Society  Changed from being an agricultural society into an industrial society o About 50 years to transition From 1860-1915 o 1860s o Before the industrial takeover you would not travel far out of your town, you would marry a boy you’ve known your whole life, you lived near/with your families as you got older  Everything was local o 1915 o Cotton is no longer that important machinery is now how we gain wealth o Half the people that work for wages work in factories o Your power is slowly leaving you o More good being produced by machine cheaper o Gaining more access to goods o Bringing people together by being able to live our lives in similar ways o Changes in Economy o Importance of steel  Makes everything else possible  Allows us to become a coast to coast country  Allows us to build factories to create all over goods  Bessemer process process of making steel. Made it possible to create 3-5 tons of steel in about 15 minutes o Railroads  Had steel rails  Allowed us to transport people all over their country  Also added jobs  Created time zones in order to allow people to know exactly when the trains would come helped their business  They changed and control time Government, government intensions o Where is the government is spending money and putting their energy into industrialization? o How did railroads get help from government? o Government gives a certain plot of land and saying you should lay your tracks here, if people help to fund the railroad o After the rails have been set the companies have a bunch of land left and then sell that and make money for themselves The American West o Railroads help bring people to the west o Farmers, miners, ect. o Miners o Many people who traveled west tried to mine, many failed o A lot of run by corporations because they had the money to provide material to mine with o Role of Federal Government in the West o Homestead Act  Family living in a section of the country that doesn’t have a lot of land can be set up with a plot of land out in the west if they agree to farm and live there for five years  Gave people the ability to have their own land and move west o Removing Indians people who already lived there New Way of doing business o no changes would have occurred if business had stayed as small as they were in the 1860s not enough people o had to adapt to the new ways of travel and power o many created corporations business model of late 19 century o railroads first example o board of directors o stock holders/investors o protective tariffs o want to protect things we make here o but taxes on things being imported from other countries  if they want to sell in America they will be taxed making American goods more affordable o want to promote American business o creating monopolies to dominate the workplace start working together more o hurts the American consumers o Interstate Commerce Commission o Would give rates to big shippers more tax than small o Sherman Antitrust Act o Denied the ability to pull together and scam consumers Who worked in the new factories? o New urban industrial workers o Farmers o Became more efficient which means that there is not as much need for people working on the farm o Immigrants o Really powered the new factories, along with some farmers who moved to the city o Feared they would be violent o 1850-1860  5,000,000 immigrants come in that period most from England and Ireland, protestant and catholic o moving into the 1870-1860 many are coming from Germany and Scandinavian moving to the mid west  10,000,00  farmers and small business owners o 1890-1914 biggest wave  15,000,000  coming from Greece, Poland, Russia, Jewish, Italy  many of their home lands are in crisis  new immigrants not welcomes with open arms 2/1/16  Immigrants o Many people believed they would bring the bad political structure and ideas to America, when really most of them were just trying to escape o Tended to stay in big cities, east coast, or mid-west o Worked in factories with unskilled jobs o Tended to stay within their own neighborhoods to feel safe and comfortable  People spoke their language, practiced their religion, ect.  “China town”, “little Italy”, “ethnic ghettos” Chicago  grows because of the railroad  meat packing town drew in a lot of immigrants  over half the people that worked for wages worked for large employers  everyone who lived around a certain factory, worked in the factor o south east Chicago steel mill o packing town meat packing district  stayed within own groups, confined themselves, to their own ethnic and religious groups o many of the people within the workplace could not talk to each other to it stayed very much divided Working/Living conditions  poor, messy, crowded  land lords were trying to take as much money as possible o many people take boarders o had no privacy or personal space  health conditions were poor family life o one immigrant neighborhood in Chicago had a 25% mortality rate o no indoor plumbing, no sewage o southern life expectance was very low  white men, white women, black women, black men o a lot of stress because of the cramped living situation o never enough to eat, never good work o domestic violence was common o heavy drinking was common especially for immigrants o everyone went to work  city life o able to do much more  theatre, marriage opportunities, culture, jobs o more goods available to you if you can afford them Factory life  long hours many worked between 12-14 hours a day 6 days a week, no breaks, no minimum wage, no overtime(doesn’t exist yet)  worked long, hard, and fast new, better, faster machines o adopting time saving techniques to make more in a short amount of time o jobs become simpler and simpler once machines are added to the picture o people aren’t needed to have as much skill for the work process  making wages go down  makes worker less valuable  jobs were very dangerous o buildings made of wood, machines spark a lot of fire o no one cares if you get your finger cut off, if you don’t get paid they don’t get paid  working for wages makes country nervous o independent farmer used to be the perfect American independent business owner, controlled economic lively hood  dream is becoming less possible, especially immigrants o growing working class isn’t ever going to be independent, creates anxiety for upper middle class citizens fearful of working class 2/8 Industrialization in the South - How is the south different from the north? Cotton is the major product in the south, 1.Railroads Consequences a. Urbanization b. Access to consumer goods c. Segregation (people segregate themselves before trains, trains make it much more difficult to bring whites and blacks together; this is why segregations laws begin) 2. Characteristics of southern industrialization a. Taking things out of the ground like trees, cotton, and coal b. Low skilled and low paid jobs (most dangerous is coal mining) c. Land is cheap (buy and move on) 3. Southern industries and workers a. Source of labor -Southern farmers and cotton is not doing well -Southern states are in debt after war -Come up with idea to lease men in prison to work (they live in bad conditions and most work in coal mines, most are young men who don’t live after they are around 45) b. Coal mining defining characteristics c. Textiles (begins to move south in the 1880s-1890s) tried to get families to work there so they can pay them a family wage -Racial and gender composition -Coal mining camps (were segregated) -Danger - Racial, gender, age composition --All white workers, women and children (as young as 8-9), - Company town - Paternalism Crisis of the 1890s: Workers and Farmers Fight Back 1. Working-class protests options a. Go on strike  not going to work to force the hand of employers want more money, less hours, safer conditions  often violent, frequently unsuccessful, demands were usually not met because workers had no resources like the owners did, could not live without the wages o many relied on churches, community, and family. Money is stretched very thin  1881-1905, 37,000 strikes b. Quit c. Politics d. trying to get the politicians to side with them and branch away from the captains of industry and do something for the working class  who is the government responding to? 2. Contributing factors to success or failure a. What does the rest of the country think; do they support them or are they against them and will fight with them b. How are the worker organized, are they all on the same team, do they all have a common problem or do they see themselves on their own team (Whites, Italians, Jews not united) 3. Great Strike Wave, 1870s-1890s 4. Getting organized forming unions  organized to protect their skill, but unions are useless to the majority of people because skill was not as important at this time many unskilled immigrants or women were working for less  Knights of Labor o Founded in 1869 o White males, highly skilled o Would organize anyone, anyone in an industry could join, skilled/unskilled, women, African Americans, immigrants, everyone in the same factory belonged to the same union o Broad membership o 8 hour day was a huge point  1886, may 1  half million workers walk off the job in cities all across the nation o wanted workers to be politically active o have a lot of success in the south  Haymarket riot o From the 8 hour day debate o May 1, 1886 o Killed four strikers o Called a meeting of protesters, then someone threw a bomb at the police officers killing 7 officers, then the police fire and kill more strikers o Fear conspiracy o Ends Knights of Labor after four people were executed for the bomb going off  American Federation of Labor AFL o What labor unions were like pre Knight of Labor o Wanted skilled workers, no immigrants, no women, and no politics 2/10 5. Problems facing farmers in the South and Midwest: Debt and railroads  It was at first the “American Dream”, but this lifestyle soon began to be unbearable, not desirable  Cotton big money maker for farmers o Cotton started to decline because Brittan did not need American cotton anymore they were getting it from their own colonies o Growing more cotton and growing less food, more dependent on the money they got from cotton o No more independent farmer, dependent on loans  Technology introduced on Midwestern farmers before southern farms, cotton farmers in the south did see tractors until the 1960s o Wheat farmers, for example, were doing much better being of the efficacy and technology  Feel they are being screwed by the railroad because they have to make so much more than the millionaires because they do not use as much of the railroad they do 6. Southerner Farmers Alliance (1879): Economic and social functions, role of women, farmers and race  Grows to 5 million members nationwide  Membership was fairly broad, all rural people, could not join if you were a merchant, lawyer, or banker  Heavy membership where cotton was grown  Created cooperatives o Started selling things, cotton, in bulk. Decided to work together to gain resources together and not have to go to the banks o Was very hard because farmers by nature are independent people  Farmers are beginning to feel left behind by modern life  white organization, but soon realize that black farmers have the same problem color farmer alliance o color farmer alliance and Southern Farmers Alliance start to talk and realize they have common problems 7. Becoming National 1889: Demand a more responsive government  want to get rid of all national banks  believe federal government should assist in getting better prices for their crops warehouses  want to change way of political system o get rid of property tax and make income tax o want to elect their senators  state legislator chose the senators o have ideas ahead of their time o want to change how money circulates 8. Becoming political: The people party, 1891  run a presidential candidate in 1892  populace party  win a 1,000,000 votes  do really well at the state and local level, white farmers that typically vote dem and black who vote rep start to talk and find a person they can agree on o very threatening to the south o do well in Kansas and NC 9. Presidential Election of 1896  William McKinley republican  William Jennings Bryan democrat o Then presents himself to be a populace  Country is in a bad state at this time, everyone is looking for solutions  Democratic party sort of starts to like the populace party and take one of their stronger issues and promote it  Ended up nominating Bryan for the populace party candidate as well  McKinley wins every large city and the north, Bryan wins the south and the west o We are not an urban nation


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