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by: Caitlyn Windhorst

CyclesandBiomes.pdf Biol 105-01

Caitlyn Windhorst
GPA 3.294

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Cycles and Biomes Notes from 02/09/16 and 02/11/16
Environmental Biology
Dr. Dean Denicola
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlyn Windhorst on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 105-01 at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Dean Denicola in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Environmental Biology in Biology at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 02/11/16
Food Chain Flow of energy and cycling of matter Sun  primary producers (phototrophs)  herbivores  carnivores  top carnivores o Besides the sun, respirative heat is given off by the rest of them Primary Producers GPP = rate at which energy from sun is stored in organic molecules by plants (gross primary productivity) Some of that energy goes to plant respiration for their own growth (AR – autotrophic respiration) GPP – AR = NPP (net primary productivity) o This is the amount of energy available to producers Desert & grasslands = low productivity Tropical forest & temperate deciduous forest = high productivity Rainfall determines GPP for terrestrial ecosystems Limiting nutrients determines GPP for aquatic ecosystems Freshwater and coastal ocean zones  N (nitrogen) & P (phosphorus) Open ocean  iron (helps algae grow  increases productivity) Grazing Chain o Plant NPP  herbivores  carnivores  top carnivores o They all lose some heat o Some eventually die and the energy goes to the decomposer chain Decomposer Chain o Detritis (dead organic matter)  decomposers  carnivores  top carnivores o They all lose some heat as the energy goes  10% transferred up through the chain (less and less energy as you group the food chain)  100 cal/m2/yr (plant)  10 cal /m2 /yr (herbivore)  1cal / m2 / yr (carnivore) Energy flows o 1 way street o Cant recycle back into the food chain Nutrients (matter) cycles o Unlike energy Biogeochemistry  Biology, geology, chemistry  Can be in: o Atmosphere o Lithosphere (rocks, soil) o Hydrosphere (water) o Biosphere (organism)  Nutrient budget o How much goes in, how much goes out o Input = output  balanced o Input > output  storage (net gain) o Input < output  net loss o Measure what comes from the air, soil, rock, water (dissolving, leaving, washing away) Hydrologic Cycle  Precipitation  evaporation / transpiration  Precipitation  …. Repeat  Carbon cycle o Erosion o Dissolving in water o Respiration o Decomposition o Photosynthesis o Combustion o Fossil fuels (burn for energy, which gives combustion) Nitrogen Cycle Natural o N2 gas in the air  lightning and rain  in soil (bacteria, ammonia, nitrate)  plants  eaten by animals (continues to cycle in the ecosystem)  N2 in bacteria (usually swamps and wetlands)  denitronization of N2 What humans did/do o N2 in air  fertilizer  plants  plant crops with nitrogen fixing bacteria Phosphorus Cycle Found mostly in phosphate rocks Can get into naturally (runoff, water, soil) Humans mine phosphate rock, make to fertilizer, and put in plants  runoff into ocean with excessive amount  goes to bottom of ocean, eventually becomes rock again Can’t make new phosphate atoms Biomes Biome: major ecosystem type – characterized by climate, soil, and biological community adapted to those conditions Climate: average weather (temperature, rain, Sun days, humidity, etc.) in area Soil: a complex mixture of inorganic (clay, silt, sand, gravel, rocks) and organic materials with varying amounts of air and moisture Soil Horizons  O Horizon: surface litter = fallen leaves partially decomposed organic debris (O means organic)  A Horizon: topsoil = organic matter (humus), living organisms, inorganic materials  E Horizon: zone of leaching = dissolved or suspended materials move downwards  B Horizon: subsoil = accumulation of iron, aluminum, clay  C Horizon: weathered parent materials  R Horizon: bedrock Climate  Equator – sun rays are most direct  Tropics: more reflections  Hemispheres: o Northern Hemisphere  June – summer  December – winter o Southern Hemisphere  June – winter  December – summer  Climate affects air Convergent Evolution  Organisms from different evolutionary lies evolve similar structures and roles o Ex) marsupial and placental animals Deserts  Dry, cold to hot, poor soils  Low and unpredictable rainfall  Rocky, sandy, pavement, soil  Cold desert: Great Basin, Western Mountain Valley  Warm desert: acacia, cacti, agave  Usually around 30 degrees North and South  Animals: nocturnal. Ectotherms (scorpion), kangaroo rats Grasslands  Temperate climate  Not enough rain for trees  Grasslands adapted for fire and herbivory o Grow from the base  Best soils o Annual plants (die in winter, grow inspiring)  Short-grass prairie (West): less than 10 cm of annual rainfall  Mid-grass prairie (Central): between 10 & 50 cm of annual rainfall  Tall-grass prairie (east): greater than 50 cm of annual rainfall  Large herbivores o Bison, elk, prairie chicken, cattle  Burrowing animals o Gophers, prairie dogs  Top predator o Wolves  Human impact (anthropogenic impact) Savanna  Seasonal rainfall, on dry borders of tropical forests  Like a grassland with scattered trees  Lot in Africa, some on the borders of the Amazon, some in Australia  Large herbivores and predators o Zebra, wildebeest, cheetah, giraffe Chaparral  Dominated by shrubs in the vegetation  Confined climate (Mediterranean climate) o Hot, dry summers o Mild, damp winters  Usually found around the Mediterranean Sea  Maintained by fire o If not – lots of dead vegetation that could make the fire worse  Human Influence o Grow wines, olives, grapes Deciduous Forest Year round rain, humid temperate climate with snow, good soil Northeast US, Northern Europe, Western Soviet Union, China, Eastcoast of Australia Human: o Logging for hardwoods 1.Overstory of deciduous trees (20-60m) 2.Secondary deciduous trees (5-12 m) 3.Shrub layer, deciduous and evergreen (0.5-3m) 4.Herbaceous layer, spring perennials 5.Moss and lichen layer on rocks and fall logs Herbivores o Elk Predator o Wolves Amphibians o Tree frogs, yellow spotted salamander Omnivore o Bears Northern Boreal Forest (Also: Taiga, Coniferous Forest)  Moist, cool summer  Long, cold winter  Gymnosperms dominate o Ex) pine, hemlock o Use cones for reproduction o Evergreen needle-leaved trees  Northern Hemisphere o Canada, Scandinavia, Rocky Mountain, Himalayas, Siberia  Little understory from heavy shade  Exposed bedrock, poor water-logged soils, acidic soils, lots of lakes and bogs  Extensive clonal growth and low diversity of trees  Glaciation  Resins in trees makes them susceptible to fire  Animals adapted to cold o Grizzly bears o Black bears o Moose o Porcupine o Deer o Elk o Bighorn sheep o Mosquitoes o Mountain goat o wolves  Berry shrubs important food  Human impact: o Fur trade (trappers) o Square timber trade (structural lumber) o Used to make paper Temperate Rain Forest  Lots of rain  Mild cold temperature year round  Large, fast growing trees  Lots of epiphytes (plants that live on other plants) o Ex) moss on trees  Coastal Oregon, Washington, Alaska, Vancouver, New Zealand, Japan  Redwood forests


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