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PSYS 001 Upload 4

by: Adele

PSYS 001 Upload 4 PSYS 001

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These notes cover Modules 17 and 18-Conciousness and Unit 6 on Learning
Intro to Psychological Science
Class Notes
learning, Psychology
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adele on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYS 001 at University of Vermont taught by Rudiger in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at University of Vermont.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Unit 17 Module 57 Introduction to Consciousness Introduction Mentalism-performing art where performer appears to read the mind of someone else-all it is is a combo of psych, misdirection and suggestion Consciousness-subjective awareness of self and our environment Dualism-idea that the mind/soul and body are separate entities Monism-consciousness and the mind are biologically based in the brain o Psych assumes monism is correct Distinction between autonomic behaviors, controlled behaviors, implicit memory and explicit memory Freud: o Denial-rejecting info that one finds too uncomfortable to accept o Phobia-persistent fear of something that can results in distress if fear is realized o Freudian slips-error in speech, physical act or memory that is thought to have to occurred due to a wish, conflict or train of thought o Repression-exclusion of memory, desire of though from one’s consciousness Module 58: Sleeping and Dreaming Revitalize Us for Action Sleep Stages: Moving through the Night  Biological rhythms-regularly occurring cycles of behavior o Circadian rhythm –guides daily wake and sleeping cycle  Sleep=influenced by surrounding light  Ganglion cells (Retina) sent singals to the suprachiasmatic nucleus which = body’s main circadian regulator. It analyzes the strength/duration of light and then signals the pineal glad when the strength/duration is short or low. The pineal glad then secretes melatonin.  Brain is active when people sleeping. Sleeping pattern have been recorded by EEGs  Each sleep stage tends to last about 90 minutes and each has specific brain activity associated to it. o Two major stages: REM (dreaming) and slow-wave (deep sleep. Slow wave is part of the broader category called NREM (non-REM) that is divided into N1, N2 and N3 respectively o REM=occupied by about 20-25% of total sleep time and are concentrated normally towards the end of the cycle  Low muscle tone (don’t move much)  Tend to be sexually aroused o Alphawaves when person is awake but drowsy o First fall asleep and when person is awake and activebeta waves o N1theta waves o N2theta waves with random bursts of brain activity called sleep spindles o N3 (slow wave sleep)Delta Waves  First period of REM happens 90 min after falling sleep o Increase in activity in the limbic system  REM period increases from about 5 to 20 min as night goes on and dreams tend to become more and more elaborate Sleep Disorders: Problems in Sleeping Most sleep disorders occur during NREM sleep  Insomnia-persistent difficulty falling/staying asleep o Most cases are temporary  Sleep apnea-sleep disorder characterized by paused in breathing that last a minimum of ten seconds during sleep o Normally treated by an air machine with a mask  Narcolepsy-extreme daytime sleepiness and frequent episodes of falling asleep o Can be also be accompanied by cataplexy-person loses muscle tone and it results in them partially or completely collapsing  Somnambulism-sleep walking o Most common among children around the age of 12 o When motor/cognitive processes are not turned off/reduced in magnitude during sleep  Sleep terrors- o More frequently in childhood o Person cannot wake up even if they are trying to.  Bruxism-grinding teeth during sleep  Restless leg syndrome-person reports uncomfortable feeling in legs that is exacerbated when resting/asleep  Periodic limb movement disorder-sudden/involuntary movement of limbs  REM sleep behavior disorder-when people engage in strange physical activities during REM sleep due to violent/intense dreams The Heavy Costs of Not Sleeping  Newborns sleep 16-18 hours a day  Preschools 10-12 hours  School-ageteenagers about 9 hours  Adults should get about 7-9 hours  Costs: o Increase in anxiety o Decreased performance o Obesity o Hypertension o Memory impairment o Severe cases: death o Suppression of immune responses Dreams and Dreaming  Dreams-succession of thoughts, images, emotions and sounds that passes through the mind while sleeping o Normally relates to fears, failures, concerns and everyday experiences  Freud: o Primary function of dreams=wish fulfillment-idea that dreams allow us to act out the desires that we repress during the day o Manifest content-literal actions in dream o Latent connect-hidden psychological meaning of the dream o Psychoanalysis  Payne and Nadel o Argue that we dream about things that we are moving into long-term memory therefore dreaming may be an important part of learning  Activation-synthesis theory-dreams are our brain’s interpretation of random firing of neurons in the brain stem o Essentially the pathways to skeletal system are disconnected during REM and the cortex doesn’t know how to interpret them anymore. Therefore it puts the random neuron firings together in a form it understandsa story Unit 6-Learning Module 13: Classical Conditioning Pavlov Demonstrated Conditioning in Dogs Notice that dogs started salivating when technicians who normally fed them came into the room-associated arrival of techs with idea that food would follow. Later paired a sound with response (salivation) conditioned stimulus (CS)-neutral stimulus that, after being repeatedly connected to the unconditioned stimulus, evokes a similar response unconditioned stimulus (US)-something that triggers naturally occurring response neutral stimulus (NS) conditioned response (CR)- unconditioned response (UR)-naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus goal is to turn the NS into the C Classical conditioning-learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that naturally produced a specific behavior The Persistence and Extinction of Conditioning  Extinction-reduction In response that occurs when a conditioned stimulus is presented multiple times without the unconditioned stimulus. Never complete.  Spontaneous recovery-increase in response to CS following pause after extinction  Generalization-tendency to respond to stimuli that resemble original CS  Discrimination-tendency to respond differently to stimuli that are similar but not identical  Second-Order Conditioning-existing conditioned stimulus can serve as US for pairing with a new CS The Role of Nature in Classical Conditioning  Phobia-strong and irrational fear of a specific object/activity/situation  Tend to be predisposed to things that would have been harmful in the past (snakes, spiders, falling out of tress, open spaces) aka natural/evolutionary factors  Involves amygdala  Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-a severe anxiety disorder that can development following exposure to an event associated with extreme fear o Occur when individuals forms associated with environmental factors from the event and the emotions o Slower to show extinction Module 14: Operant Conditioning How Reinforcement and Punishment Influence Behavior  Operant Conditioning-learning that happens using the idea of consequences of an action. It can involve the learning of new behaviors. o Learning by observing consequences  Edward L Thorndike=first person to study operant conditioning o Developed the law of effect-responses that create a typically pleasant outcome in a certain situation are more likely to occur again in a similar situation. Responses that produced a less pleasant outcome are less likely to occur again in the situation  Responses are “stamped in” or “stamped out”  Skinner developed Thorndike’s ideas o Created specific environments called operant chambers/Skinner Boxes  Operant Chamber/Skinner Box-structure big enough to fit rodent/bird and that contains a bar/key that the creature can press/peck to release food/water o Reinforce-any event that strengthens/increases the likelihood of a behavior  Positive reinforcement-add/increase pleasant stimulus  Negative reinforcement-reduce/subtract unpleasant stimulus o Punisher-any event that weaken/decreases the likelihood of a behavior  Positive punishment-present/add an unpleasant stimulus  Weakens response by presenting something unpleasant post response  Negative punishment-reduce/subtract a pleasant stimulus  Weakens response by reducing/removing something pleasant  Reinforcers are more effective than punishments. Punishments tend to result in only temporary change Creating Complex Behaviors Through Operant Conditioning  Continuous reinforcement schedule-desired response is reinforced every time it happens  Partial (intermittent) reinforcement schedule-schedule where the responses are only sometimes reinforced o Slow initial learning but greater resistance to extinction o Four different schedules:  Fixed-interval schedule-reinforcement happens for first response after a specific amount of time has elapsed  Variable-interval schedule-the timing around the average interval is varied  Fixed-ratio schedule-behavior is reinforced after a specific number of responses  Variable-ratio schedule-provide reinforcement after specific but average amount of responses (ex. one every twenty)  Shaping-process of guiding an organism’s behavior to desired outcome using successive approximation to a final desired behavior  Primary reinforcer-stimuli that are naturally preferred/enjoyed by the organism  Secondary reinforcer-a neutral event that becomes associated to a primary reinforce through classical conditioning Module 15: Learning by Insight and Observation Insight: Learning by Understanding  Pavlov, Watson and Skinner considered learning to be the same as behavior change. Also believed learning only occurs when individual directly experiences impact of reward/punishment  Insight-sudden understanding of a problem o Köhler argues that it is insight that is most important in learning Latent Learning: Learning before Doing  Edward Tolman o latent learning-learning that is not reinforced and not demonstrated until there is a incentive to do so Observational Learning: Learning by Watching  Albert Bandura o Learning can occur when someone else is doing the behaving and being rewarded/punished  learning through modeling Violent Video Games and Aggression  Television violence can increase aggression  Video games can also increase aggression and decrease altruistic behavior Lecture Notes  Study plan o decide what you want to study and why o make explicit plan: what, where, when  vary locations  avoid marathon study sessions o avoid rereading o transform content into tools o avoid “the groove” o interleaving is not multitasking o think very hard about using a computer o music is likely not helpful consciousness-our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment subliminal processing o not paying attention leads to being more easily influenced o the wandering mind is the greatest predictor of a bad mood biological rhythms o circadian rhythm (diurnal rhythm)  about 24hr that guides the sleep wake cycle o menstrual cycle sleeping + dreaming o suprachiasmatic nucleus(SCN)-analyzes strength + duration of light  pineal gland  melatonin-hormone facilitating sleep Theories o Psychodynamic  wish fulfillment  latent content  manifest content o information processing  consolidation into LTM o activation-synthesis  random firing and sensationnarrative story sleep deprivation o slow reaction times o 20% of road accidents o less than 6hrs of sleep=BAC of .05% o obesity o memory impairment o hypertension o suppressed immune system Learning  Learning-relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that is the result of experience  Memory-ability to store and retrieve information over time  Cognition-process of acquiring and using knowledge  Pavlov-Classical Conditioning o Explains acquisition of reflexive responses that are controlled by stimuli that precede the response o Extinction=reduction in response that occurs when conditioned stimulus is presented repeated with the unconditioned stimulus o Spontaneous recovery-increase in response to the conditioned stimulus following a pause after extinction o Discrimination-tendency to respond differently to stimuli that are similar but not identical o Generalization-tendency to respond to stimuli that resemble the original conditioned stimulus  Operant Conditioning-responses are controlled by their consequences


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