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Lecture 2

by: Sierra

Lecture 2 Biol 28600


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Notes from Lecture 2
Introduction to Ecology and Evolution
Joshua Springer
Class Notes
Ecology, evolution, Biology
25 ?




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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 28600 at Purdue University taught by Joshua Springer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ecology and Evolution in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Announcements • ~70 of you still need to register for the temporary access)site (you can even use • For this lecture you should be reading the material – Your choice either before or immediately after • The ‘3 point’ assignment on Mastering will be semester as extra credit at the end of the • assigned that dayedule means homework • Bring up signed syllabus page if you brought it (Due next Tuesday, 19 January) Quiz # 1 • Available beginning 12:21pm today – Due by 11:59pm Sunday, 17 January – What’s covered? – How much should I study? • two to three times the number of hours spent in classes! Clarifications (thanks for asking questions!) • ‘H’ on the course schedule means homework will be assigned that day • Large or Small population evolves faster? – Small populations evolve faster (genetic drift—I’ll talk about this next week) – BUT a chance for a NEW mutation to appear is higher in a larger population (mutation rate) – Small populations would show the effects of a mutation faster…can lead to faster evolution Minutes 15:15—43:35 iClicker (practice, no credit) (set to AA) • Which of the following are examples of evolution: – A) leaf color change from summer to fall – B) Animals increase in fur from season to season – C) a fungal population has a new ability to use and break down toxins in the environment – D) E. coli gains resistance to a new antibiotic – E) two of these Evolution by Natural selection • The close correspondence of organisms to their environment is no accident. – Derives from a process called natural selection. • Only individuals that are well adapted to their environment will survive and produce offspring. • Favorable traits are passed on, unfavorable ones are removed – BY….Natural Selection How do animals and plants respond to extreme environments? • Deserts represent an extreme environment. – Yet many species of animals and plants have adapted to live in deserts. • Include physiological/biochemical adaptations and behavioral adaptations. Definition of Ecology Relationship of organisms to one another AND to their biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) surroundings (environment) The study of the structure and function of nature Definition of Evolution • First rule: Don’t say ‘Prove’ – Say, ‘evidence of’ • Descent with modification over many generations – Not simply change over time—lots of things do that! • Change in allele frequencies (form of a gene) over time • Organisms share a common ancestor in the ancient historical past (millions of years) Combining Ecology & Evolution: • Considering the evolutionary history of organisms and their interactions with the environment – Can help explain characteristics of organisms and the origins of characteristics and species interrelatedness – Competitors, mutualisms, predators, prey and pathogens are commonly studied in this field Examples of Evolution by selection (some artificial, some natural) • Dogs, Cats, farm animals, etc. • Corn, Wheat, Soybeans, yeast! • Bacteria (antibiotic resistance) – MRSA – Tuberculosis • Viruses – Flu (Avian and Swine) – Ebola • Any living thing on the planet is the product of evolution via natural selection – We have MUCH evidence of this Examples of Evolution by Natural Selection The obligatory Peppered Moth example from Britain Evolution of Escherichia coli (E. coli) Dr. Rich Lenski Michigan State University • Since February 1988 • Daily transfers of E. coli in to new growth medium (always the same recipe day to day, week to week) • Over 65,000 generations since 1988 (6.64 doublings per day) In the beginning… • Lenski created the experiment with 12 identical colonies of E. coli – Why are identical colonies necessary? • Every 500 generation has a sample frozen – Comparisons then made (fitness e.g.) • Spontaneous mutations have occurred that have increased the fitness of the colony! – Bigger cells are evident – Utilize citrate as an energy source – Analysis of Evolution has practical applications! • Understanding origins of emerging diseases – HIV – Ebola (fast evolving!) – New Flu Strains (this is sometimes concerning) – Chikungunya (look this one up!) • Understanding the origins and evolution of Dogs iClicker (set to AA; practice) • How many species of Dog are there? – A) 239 – B) 143 – C) 1 – D) 86 HIV prevalence Ebola infection concentration HIV infection, replication, and maturation Figure 1-10 AZT=azidothymidine similarity to a normal Thymine nucleotide Evidence for HIV evolution • In a single human individual or population wide Figure 1-15 Figure 1-20 Figure 1-22 HIV evolution within and among infected patients; an investigation and forensic mystery solved Figure 1-31a HIV evolution within an infected patient Evolutionary history of HIV and HIV- like viruses (a graphic representation) Why should you NEVER stop taking antibiotics before all are used***? Why may prophylactic antibiotic use in animals not be such a good idea? ***unless directed by your Doctor***


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