Chapter 5 Notes
Chapter 5 Notes CRJU 101 001
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CRJU 101 001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Richard Martin on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJU 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Corey Burton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Criminal Justice 101 in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Chapter 5: Overview of Law Enforcement, History, Agencies, Personnel and Strategies Wednesday, February 3, 2016 10:15 AM Police Jurisdiction • Jurisdiction: In policing, refers generally to the geographic area of responsibility that a law enforcementagency has Federal Law Enforcement Agencies • U.S. Marshals Service and U.S. Postal Inspection Service were the only two original federal law enforcement agencies, but many have since been added • Fall under the executive branch of government (the President) • Have jurisdiction in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and all U.S. territories • 3 major types of federal law enforcement ○ Military Police, Tribal Police, Civilian Police • Military Police ○ Each branch of the military has its own police and investigative service and its own court and correctional system ○ Jurisdiction typically limited to military facilities and violations of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) ○ Military enlistment typically a prerequisite for employment • Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies ○ U.S. Marshals Service ○ U.S. Postal Inspection Service ○ U.S. Secret Service Established April 15, 1865 Part time protection in 1894 Full time protection in 1901 following assassination of William McKinley Responsible for investigating violations of numerous federal laws related to counterfeit currency, financial fraud, cyber fraud and other financial crimes as they relate to the support of terrorism Protective responsibilities include: □ President, vice-president, major candidates, heads of state, first and second families and their children until 16 □ Former presidents □ White House, Naval Observatoryand Foreign Embassies and Consulates in Washington, DC □ National Special Security Events ○ Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Founded in 1908 Changed drastically under directorship of J. Edgar Hoover Grown significantly since the 1930s with dual responsibilities of criminal investigations and domestic intelligence Operates the FBI Academy in Quantico, VA Administers the National Crime Information Center Priorities are protecting the US from terrorist attacks and gathering information related to foreign intelligence and espionage Also investigates numerous other violations of federal law and assists state and local law enforcement agencies ○ Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) ○ Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) ○ National Security Agency (NSA) ○ Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) • State Law Enforcement ○ Hawaii is only state without a state police agency ○ 2 primary functions: highway patrol and investigations ○ Up to each state to determine how these functions are performed • County Law Enforcement ○ Administered by a county Sheriff's Office ○ Sheriffs obtain their position through election ○ Along with deputies, responsible for many law enforcement functions within their respective county ○ Perform same basic police services as city police departments such as routine patrol and investigations but may vary depending on the jurisdiction Sheriffs and their deputies also serve as officers of the court and operate county jails ○ ○ Jurisdictional conflicts also exist between county and city law enforcement ○ Solution: many larger jurisdictions have moved to incorporating county and local agencies • Municipal Law Enforcement Arguably most recognizable type of police, up to 60% of all sworn law enforcement personnel working for local law ○ Arguably most recognizable type of police, up to 60% of all sworn law enforcement personnel working for local law enforcement agencies ○ New York City Police Department is largest municipal police department in the US ○ Jurisdiction restricted to city limits ○ Roles and responsibilities: Traffic enforcement Routine patrol and directed patrol Investigating crimes Order maintenance • Police Selection ○ Steps in police hiring processes: Written exam Oral board/interview Physical fitness tests Polygraph Background check Medical exam/drug screening Psychological evaluation Monday February 8, 2016 • Academy and In-Service Training ○ Criminal Law/Procedural Law ○ Agency Policy ○ Physical Fitness ○ Psychology ○ Firearms/Tactical Training ○ Vehicle/Pursuit Training ○ Control Tactics and Arrest Techniques ○ First Aid/HAZMAT Training ○ Basic Investigations/CrimeScene Preservation • Field Training and In-Service Training ○ Following academy training, new officers may be assigned to a Field Training Officer (FTO) program ○ In-service training is performed throughout an officer's career in order to maintain various job-related skills • Life as a Law Enforcement Officer/Agent ○ Police departments and agencies are required to be staffed and on-call 24/7 ○ 9-5 shifts are very atypical in law enforcement ○ Officers may work shifts of 8-12 hours and work rotating shifts (alternating between day and night shifts) ○ For patrol officers, shifts are spent in assigned areas of responsibility or "beats", each with their own challenges • Police Subculture Law enforcementofficers by nature do a job that is different than most other professions ○ ○ Police officers tend to feel a sense of isolation from the public ○ Police offices also find support and solidarity within each other ○ Forms of police stress: fear of civil liability, workplace stress, family stress, and keeping up with the law ○ Police officers in general suffer from higher rates of suicide, drug and alcohol abuse, various mental and physical health problems and divorce than the general public ○ Police work is inherently dangerous, although police deaths in the line of duty are relatively rare ○ The unpredictability of police work refers to never knowing when a dangerous situation will arise or when one will become involved in a critical incident • Stress and Law Enforcement ○ Even though assaults on police officers and deaths in the line of duty are rare, they can and should influence hiring and training and can affect offices and departments in their aftermath ○ Suicide by Cop/Police: a suspect, without having intent to harm a police officer, places himself or herself in a situation where a police officer is compelled to use deadly force • Community Policing ○ In general, a partnership between police and the community to work together to combat crime and disorder ○ Emphasizes: crime prevention, quality of life, alternatives to arrest ○ Broken Windows Theory: idea that ignoring public order violations and disruptive behavior leads to community neglect, which fosters further disorder and crime ○ Zero Tolerance: with regard to Broken Windows, it is the practice of strict enforcement of minor offenses in order to send a message to other offenders
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