Sociology Notes soci 243
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ariel Kamen on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soci 243 at Towson University taught by Miho Iwata in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see sociology, race, class and gender in Liberal Arts at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
2/9/16 * In continuation of conflict perspective Dominant group : subordinate group A : not A “Standard” : substandard Norm valued : abnormal lacking the valued traits of the A group “the other” Social Structure and Interaction • social structure the framework of societal institutions and social practices that make up a society and establish limits on behavior • social interaction process by which people act toward or respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationships and groups in society\ • copy framework and it within notes Status • a socially defined position in society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties • statueses are occupied positions locations in society you copy • status set • ascribed status social position based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age and gender • achieved status social position that a person assumes as a result of person choice, merit, or direct effort * ascribed status affects the achieved status Roles • roles are played a set of different expectations associated with specific status student attend class, study, pass exams, graduate parent take care of children (feed, discipline, necessities) police officer keep order, serve and protect • role expectations group or society’s definition of the way a specific role ought to be played Social Institutions • set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs Basic Social Institutions • family • religion • education • economy • government or politics • media Functionalists: 5 Tasks of Social Institutions 1. replacing members 2. teaching new members 3. producing, distributing and consuming goods and services 4. preserving order 5. providing and maintaing a sense of purpose Macrolevel Social Structure Conflict Perspective • social structure reflects a system of relationships of domination among categories of people • unless the powerless group wins the conflict, the structure works to maintain/reproduce the dominance Ex: class, gender, race/ethnicity, heteronormativity, etc. Social Construction of Reality • process which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience • this means strongly influences what we “see” and how we respond to situations • the meaning of symbols become institutionalized • definition of the situation: we analyze a social context which we find ourselves, determine what is in our best interest, and adjust our attitudes and actions accordingly • selffulfilling prophecy: false belief or prediction that produces behavior that makes the original false belief come true Categories of Difference Intro to Part 1 • categories of race, class, gender and sexuality are socially constructed and transformed in systems of inequality • results of human activity guided by the values of our culture ideas about what *** should be like • categories of difference become institutionalized passed down to new members of society • individuals contribute to the maintenance of categories of difference • Interpersonal text use norms and stereotypes to understand and define situations • Internal context internalizing the values and beliefs and conform/perpetuate the categories of differences How Do “Differences” Affect our Lives? • social categories of different (race, gender and sexualities) are socially constructed = not biological • those “differences” and what they signify become incorporated into social structure and institutionalized as norms and standards in sociohistorically specific ways (these vary from society to society) • through socialization, we learn and internalize those norms we guide our behavior based on norms and thus perpetuate ideologies Social Stratification Manifestation of “Differences” • hierarchy of social groups based on control over resources • Davis Moore thesis: inevitable due to different levels of importance in tasks that need to be performed in society (doctors vs workers at McDonald ’s) but is the ground equal? • exploitation of the subordinate for the systematic benefit of dominant legitimization by categorizing people differently • Pay attention to: structural inequality (vs individual discrimination) ideologies • critical thinking how the social structure has affected our values, attitudes, and behaviors identity and challenge assumptions awareness of our place and time in our culture search for alternative ways of thinking develop a reflective construction • essentialism and social construction challenge hegemonic (culturally dominant) belief in our culture • EMPATHY the ability to identify with the thoughts and experiences of another, even though haven ’t shared them Intersectionality first high lighted by Kimberlé Crenshaw methodology of studying, “relationships among multiple dimensions and modalities of social relationships and subject formations”