Understanding Architecture Week 4 notes
Understanding Architecture Week 4 notes 10001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layne Henwood on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10001 at Kent State University taught by David Hughes (P) in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see UNDERSTANDING ARCHITECTURE in Architecture at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Egyptian Culture • Felt the Nile river and the sun could solve all problems they may have had • Used columns ○ Looked at figured of women and made the columns in their form Greek Culture • Lot of rocky land (marble and limestone) ○ Good for building but not growing crops • Thought they needed to expand for architecture but are surrounded by water on 3 sides ○ Moved to fishing instead • Greek culture learned a lot from the Egyptians ○ Cultures usually build off of each other ○ Expanded upon what Egyptians did • Were philosophers and thinkers and mathematicians • Tried to figure out why they were here • Searching for truth ○ Searching in different ways ○ Mathematical path to find truth ○ Searched for truth through beauty • Very adventurous and tough • Did not focus much on the afterlife ○ Secular (non-religious) • Desired to achieve perfection ○ How to achieve perfection • Had a love for logic and reason • Sought out balance through symmetry ○ Symmetry is common in Greek architecture ○ Tried to find the perfect equation for symmetry and beauty • Never wanted to over-decorate or over-do anything ○ Very simplistic • Built temples ○ Often at grave sites ○ Often were dedicated to particular gods ○ Acropolis stands for high city § Built cities on high mounds/land ○ Temples were not for everybody § Only priests and few others were allowed inside § Most meetings were held outside the buildings § May have created the first democracy • Axis is the direction something is oriented ○ The Parthenon is build on an axis ○ Symbolizes a victory of when the Greeks beat the Persians ○ Naos inside Parthenon • Were not extremely strict on lining everything up perfectly • Let the land help them form their architecture ○ Did not let the land get in the way of things, built around it ○ Seems to be apparent randomness, but it is not • Scale is important in architecture ○ Decides what dominates over what • A lot of the architecture was very colorful, not just white and black as we see it ○ Colorful to salute the gods • Did not invent the column ○ Accentuated the column and how it was made ○ Used them to represent sacred things § Like rows of trees, sacred growth of trees ○ They were very close together compared to how we build now § Closer because the major material they used was stone § Stone is brittle in tension, can't be spaced far or they would split and fall ○ Columns are slightly tapered § They understood the way people saw things was different than reality § They considered perspective of people looking at the columns § When people look at something completely straight it may not look straight § The taper makes them appear to be perfect ○ They were not all spaced exactly § They would look too far apart if they were all spaced exactly on the corners • Use to sacrifice animals (pagan) ○ Because they thought it pleased the gods ○ Dentals came from this, symbolizing the animals teeth • Greek orders ○ See them everyday ○ Have dentals ○ Searching for beauty, even in ugliness ○ Doric order § Very plain § First column § Usually not as tall and fatter § Tuscan Order □ Similar to Doric □ Little heavier ○ Ionic Order § Thinner and taller than Doric § Top is called a capital § Round/spiral design on top § Taller than Doric but not as tall as Corinthian ○ Corinthian § Thinnest and tallest § Most recent § Tops look like leaves § See small reminders of Ionic § Most ornate ○ Bottoms are so similar you can barely tell a difference but the tops are very different • Parthenon ○ 447 BC and columns are still showing up this much later ○ Doric temple ○ Purposely use the power of deception and optical illusions to make it seem perfect ○ Used the width of the bottom of the columns to decided the proportion for the rest of the building, this is how important it is ○ Use perfectly pristine proportions § 2x+1 □ 2:5 ratio ○ Idealizes a specific society ○ Columns could be as tall as 60 feet tall ○ Lit by the rising sun, not setting ○ Say there are no straight lines • Sought to ensure their mortality ○ In human memory through intellectual and artistic intelligence § Science and art • Bearing wall ○ What as used before columns ○ Were strong enough to hold up the roof and walls ○ Lintels came off of these Roman Culture • First western republic • Always concerned about being attacked ○ Were proactive instead of reactive • Known for expansion ○ Which changes things from the Greek culture ○ Had a lot of land and population to deal with ○ Had a lot of public spaces ○ City was very important to them • Were very logical and engineering ○ Very disciplined ○ Very conservative and traditional ○ Very patriotic • Wanted control ○ Had to control the people they conquered ○ Wanted to establish an order • Had many wars ○ Because they had no barriers • Best architecture came from times of peace • Religion ○ They took ideas from the Greek culture and mixed it with theirs ○ Absorbing both cultures and architecture together ○ Prayed on a smaller base, family prayer ○ Focused on urban life and civil activity ○ God § Is there one? § Who is he, what is he? § What does he do? ○ Nature § Why is it here? § How do we control it? § How can we understand it? § Was it made by God? ○ Man § What role does man play? ○ State § Key difference between Greek and Romans § All four were unified and together, looked at as one • Lots of roads and aqueducts • Arches ○ Hold themselves together ○ Keystones are placed at the top because it puts a natural force on the bricks around the outside holding them in place § It's the key ○ Arches want to flatten out so they have support underneath to keep it from happening § Can put multiple arches next to each other, in a row, they cancel each other out each one holding the load of the ones next to it ○ Helped create the dome, don't call it a tunnel § Could build them because of the way the arch works § Domes are just multiple arches in a circle ○ Pantheon • Basilica ○ Pg. 256 & 258 in book ○ Remember that it is Roman ○ Rectangular shape with circles on the ends ○ Open form for people to go and discuss things ○ 480 feet long from end to end Basilica • Pushed the limits of engineering ○ Possibly invented it ○ Pushed the limits with concrete and brick • Coliseum ○ Columns were unnecessary they were used fro decoration ○ Used Doric, ionic and Corinthian columns § Each level had different columns ○ Wanted a slot of space for all the people Fall of Rome • Birth of Christianity ○ World rallying together to defeat Rome ○ Birth of Christ was essential to the fall of Rome which is why they tried to get rid of him • Christianity dominated architecture for about 700 years
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