New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Micro Week 1 Notes

by: Luke Holden

Micro Week 1 Notes 3050

Marketplace > Clemson University > Microbiology > 3050 > Micro Week 1 Notes
Luke Holden
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for General Microbiology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive General Microbiology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These are the class notes that span the days of 2/5/16-2/10/16. They include through notes and pictures from Dr. Rudolphs power points.
General Microbiology
Dr. Rudolph
Class Notes
Microbiology 3050




Popular in General Microbiology

Popular in Microbiology

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luke Holden on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3050 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Rudolph in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at Clemson University.


Reviews for Micro Week 1 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/11/16
Micro 3050 notes 2/5/16 Bacterial cell wall 1. Rigid structure that is outside cell membrane 2. Hi turgor pressure­ should be similar to hugging and Car tire 3. Peptidoglycan a. Provide shape to cell­if no genes for shape then default shape is round b. Protects from osmotic lysis c. Contribute to pathenoginicity (inflammatory)(virus is gram specific) d. Protection from toxins e. S t r u c t u r e i. M a d e out of sugars 1. NAG (DON’T HAVE TO KNOW STRUCTURES) 2. NAM­ amino acids are only onNAM 3. The sugars create a alternating backbone 4. Held together by beta 1,4 glycositic linkages ii. Amino acids complete the NAG and NAM backbones 1. These amino acids make a mesh like structure iii. Lysozyme breaks down beta 1,4 glycositic linkages 1. Therefore Lysozyme work better for gram­positive bacteria iv. Penicillin breaks the bonds between amino acids v. Trans peptidation­ building a new pep 1. Bacteria punch holes in pep and then replaced with new pep 2. Penicillin breaks bonds between amino acids therefore penicillin  attacks Trans peptidation vi. How the link 1. Two Types a. Direct i. This makes a straight peptide bond between the two strands of amino acids b. Indirect (interbridge) i. This makes a link of amino acids between the two  amino acids strands ii. 4. Gram­positive walls a. Mostly pep 90 % b. Large amounts of techoic acids –negatively charged  i .     Only in gram­positive bacterium c.   Maintained structure of cell envelope d.   Protect from harmful substances e.   May bind to host cells f.   Lipothecoic Acids i.   Attached to cell membrane ii.   Some gram­positive have proteins on pep 5.   Gram negative cells a.   Thin layer of pep that surrounded by outer membrane b.   Outer membrane i.   Lipids ii.   Lipoproteins iii.   LPS­so much it can be called LPS layer c.   Pep­ 10% d.   Periplasm i.   20% to 40% of cell volume ii.   Many enzymes 1.   Hydrolytic enzymes 2.   Transport proteins e.   Outer membrane­lies outside pep 6.   Braun’s lipoproteins­connect outer membrane to pep 7.   LPS a.   Three parts i.   Lipid A ii.   core polysaccharide iii.   “O” side chain ( O antigen) 1.   The immune system recognizes O antigen 2.   This is highly subject to change which makes it extremely  powerful in pathogens b.   Importance i.   Contributes to negative charge of surface ii.   Stabilize iii.   May contribute to attachment to surfaces iv.   Bio film formation­ a group of different strains in one area 1.   Examples include: ring around the tub, heart valve v.   Creates a permeability layer vi.   may mutate vii.   Can act as an endotoxin ( Lipid A portion of LPs) 2/8/16 1. Gram negative outer membrane a. Porins i. Allows small hydrophilic substances ii. They come in threes b. Comparison of Gram positive and gram negative i. Gram Positive ii. Gram Negative c. Osmotic Protection i. Bacteria want hypotonic enviroments ii. Hypertonic enviroments cause plasmolysis iii. Lysis is prevented by peptidoglycan 1. Fruitcake is hypertonic that bacteria cant grow iv. Penicillin prevents transpeptidation v. If you mess up pep by  lysozyme and penicclin cells will lyse when placed in a hypotonic enviroments d. Without a cell wall i. Survival in isotonic enviroments 1. Protoplast 2. Shereoplasts ii. Mycoplasm 1. No cell wall 2. Plasma membrane more resistant to osmotic pressure iii. Componets outside Cell wall 1. Capsuls a. Usally composed of polysaccrides b. Well organized c. Protective advantages: i. Phagocytosis ii. Dessication­ drying out iii. Protection against viruses 2. Slime Layers a. Diffuse unorganized easily removed b. Aid in motility c. Move like a snail 2/10/16 Cytoskeleton 2. Roles in cell divison, protein localization and shape 3. Protiens a. FTSZ­ cell division­ lots of the line the center of the bacterial cell when it is time  to divide b. MinD­these mark the center of the cell. FTSZ has to find MinD before it can D­I­ V­I­D­E () c. MreB­ scaffoliding protiens in bacilli that give the cell its shape 4. Inclusions­ aggregates of organic material  (it is like the cell talent) a. Granuals/crystals/globules b. Some enclosed by a single layered membrane c. Storage inclusion (Talent: Storage) i. Carbon inclusion­  1. Stores glycogen  2. Poly –b­ hydroxybutyrate ii. Phosphate inclusion­ 1. Polyphospohate granuals iii. Sulfur globules IN PERIPLASM (GRAM NEGATIVE) iv. Nitrogen­ cyanobacteria 1. Cyanophycin granuals d. Other Inclusions i. Gas Vaculoes (Talent: floating) 1. This is like a little life jacket for the bacterium 2. ii. Magnetosomes­ magnetized partaicles that can help the bacteria align with the earths magenetic field 1. Can find north and south 2. In water though, they sink because that is where all the  decomposing matter is happening and they want to get in on it. e. External Stuctures 1. Extend beyond cell envelope 2. In bacteria and archea i. Protection ii. Attachment iii. Horizontal gene transfer iv. Cell movement 1. Fimbriae, pili, and flagellas v. Fimbriae and pili (only called pili in conjugation) 1. Short thin hair like protienacious appendages 2. Mediate attachement 3. Some required for motility or DNA uptake (Type (IV) 4. Sex Pili­Similar to the fimbriae except longer and thicker  less numerous a. Genes for formation found in plasmids b. Required for conjugation c. You have to use viruses as a mordant I order to see it d. vi. Flagella 1. Threadlike appendages extending from the plasma  membrane out through the cell wall 2. Motility and swarming motion 3. Attachment to surfaces 4. Virulence factors 5. Patterns of distribution­specie specific­ helps with  their identification a. Monotricus­ one flagellum b. Polarflagellum­ one flagellum on the end c. Amphitrichous­ one flagellum at  each end of the cell d. Lopotrichous­cluster of flagellum at  one end e. Petritrichous vii. Motor viii.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.