Micro Week 1 Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luke Holden on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3050 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Rudolph in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Micro 3050 notes 2/5/16 Bacterial cell wall 1. Rigid structure that is outside cell membrane 2. Hi turgor pressure should be similar to hugging and Car tire 3. Peptidoglycan a. Provide shape to cellif no genes for shape then default shape is round b. Protects from osmotic lysis c. Contribute to pathenoginicity (inflammatory)(virus is gram specific) d. Protection from toxins e. S t r u c t u r e i. M a d e out of sugars 1. NAG (DON’T HAVE TO KNOW STRUCTURES) 2. NAM amino acids are only onNAM 3. The sugars create a alternating backbone 4. Held together by beta 1,4 glycositic linkages ii. Amino acids complete the NAG and NAM backbones 1. These amino acids make a mesh like structure iii. Lysozyme breaks down beta 1,4 glycositic linkages 1. Therefore Lysozyme work better for grampositive bacteria iv. Penicillin breaks the bonds between amino acids v. Trans peptidation building a new pep 1. Bacteria punch holes in pep and then replaced with new pep 2. Penicillin breaks bonds between amino acids therefore penicillin attacks Trans peptidation vi. How the link 1. Two Types a. Direct i. This makes a straight peptide bond between the two strands of amino acids b. Indirect (interbridge) i. This makes a link of amino acids between the two amino acids strands ii. 4. Grampositive walls a. Mostly pep 90 % b. Large amounts of techoic acids –negatively charged i . Only in grampositive bacterium c. Maintained structure of cell envelope d. Protect from harmful substances e. May bind to host cells f. Lipothecoic Acids i. Attached to cell membrane ii. Some grampositive have proteins on pep 5. Gram negative cells a. Thin layer of pep that surrounded by outer membrane b. Outer membrane i. Lipids ii. Lipoproteins iii. LPSso much it can be called LPS layer c. Pep 10% d. Periplasm i. 20% to 40% of cell volume ii. Many enzymes 1. Hydrolytic enzymes 2. Transport proteins e. Outer membranelies outside pep 6. Braun’s lipoproteinsconnect outer membrane to pep 7. LPS a. Three parts i. Lipid A ii. core polysaccharide iii. “O” side chain ( O antigen) 1. The immune system recognizes O antigen 2. This is highly subject to change which makes it extremely powerful in pathogens b. Importance i. Contributes to negative charge of surface ii. Stabilize iii. May contribute to attachment to surfaces iv. Bio film formation a group of different strains in one area 1. Examples include: ring around the tub, heart valve v. Creates a permeability layer vi. may mutate vii. Can act as an endotoxin ( Lipid A portion of LPs) 2/8/16 1. Gram negative outer membrane a. Porins i. Allows small hydrophilic substances ii. They come in threes b. Comparison of Gram positive and gram negative i. Gram Positive ii. Gram Negative c. Osmotic Protection i. Bacteria want hypotonic enviroments ii. Hypertonic enviroments cause plasmolysis iii. Lysis is prevented by peptidoglycan 1. Fruitcake is hypertonic that bacteria cant grow iv. Penicillin prevents transpeptidation v. If you mess up pep by lysozyme and penicclin cells will lyse when placed in a hypotonic enviroments d. Without a cell wall i. Survival in isotonic enviroments 1. Protoplast 2. Shereoplasts ii. Mycoplasm 1. No cell wall 2. Plasma membrane more resistant to osmotic pressure iii. Componets outside Cell wall 1. Capsuls a. Usally composed of polysaccrides b. Well organized c. Protective advantages: i. Phagocytosis ii. Dessication drying out iii. Protection against viruses 2. Slime Layers a. Diffuse unorganized easily removed b. Aid in motility c. Move like a snail 2/10/16 Cytoskeleton 2. Roles in cell divison, protein localization and shape 3. Protiens a. FTSZ cell division lots of the line the center of the bacterial cell when it is time to divide b. MinDthese mark the center of the cell. FTSZ has to find MinD before it can DI VIDE () c. MreB scaffoliding protiens in bacilli that give the cell its shape 4. Inclusions aggregates of organic material (it is like the cell talent) a. Granuals/crystals/globules b. Some enclosed by a single layered membrane c. Storage inclusion (Talent: Storage) i. Carbon inclusion 1. Stores glycogen 2. Poly –b hydroxybutyrate ii. Phosphate inclusion 1. Polyphospohate granuals iii. Sulfur globules IN PERIPLASM (GRAM NEGATIVE) iv. Nitrogen cyanobacteria 1. Cyanophycin granuals d. Other Inclusions i. Gas Vaculoes (Talent: floating) 1. This is like a little life jacket for the bacterium 2. ii. Magnetosomes magnetized partaicles that can help the bacteria align with the earths magenetic field 1. Can find north and south 2. In water though, they sink because that is where all the decomposing matter is happening and they want to get in on it. e. External Stuctures 1. Extend beyond cell envelope 2. In bacteria and archea i. Protection ii. Attachment iii. Horizontal gene transfer iv. Cell movement 1. Fimbriae, pili, and flagellas v. Fimbriae and pili (only called pili in conjugation) 1. Short thin hair like protienacious appendages 2. Mediate attachement 3. Some required for motility or DNA uptake (Type (IV) 4. Sex PiliSimilar to the fimbriae except longer and thicker less numerous a. Genes for formation found in plasmids b. Required for conjugation c. You have to use viruses as a mordant I order to see it d. vi. Flagella 1. Threadlike appendages extending from the plasma membrane out through the cell wall 2. Motility and swarming motion 3. Attachment to surfaces 4. Virulence factors 5. Patterns of distributionspecie specific helps with their identification a. Monotricus one flagellum b. Polarflagellum one flagellum on the end c. Amphitrichous one flagellum at each end of the cell d. Lopotrichouscluster of flagellum at one end e. Petritrichous vii. Motor viii.
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