Western Civilization Notes
Western Civilization Notes HY 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danyellia West on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 101 at University of South Alabama taught by Tyson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization in History at University of South Alabama.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Western Civilization Notes Week of February 8 Greek Philosophy o Emphasis on reason Challenged traditional religion o Sophists Rejected universal truth Win arguments o Socrates o Plato Was Socrates’ student o Aristotle Was Plato’s student Sophists (wise men who were wise guys) o Rejected Universal truth Universal ethical standards “Man is the measure of all things.” o Instruction for fee o Great demand for sophist education o Had groupies that walked around and laughed at his jokes Made fun of public officials Socrates (Method over Ideas-469 BC) o Focus Individual character and moral excellence o Unwritten philosophy Plato o Charged for corrupting the youth Given the options to either stop making jokes, leave Athens, or kill himself He decided to kill himself by drinking a poisonous flower that paralyzed him Plato (429 BC) o Man must follow reason wherever it leads o Two worlds The Impermanent, changing world Appearance The eternal, unchanging world True reality The matrix is based on this theory Aristotle (the first scientist) o Framework for Christian scholasticism Science and religion went together o Pioneered zoology Classification of living things Alexander the Great (Student of Aristotle) o United Macedonia o Initiated Greek expansion o Overthrew Persian Empire o Spread Hellenism (Greekness) Through ideas and customs Hellenistic Period and Roman Greece o Begins Death of Alexander the Great o Ends End of Ptolemaic Dynasty Cleopatra dies Industry and Commerce o Demand for consumer goods Pottery remains important Iron most important metal for low grade steel o Land and sea trade Tea, silk, slaves Economic Slavery (Prosperous societies with perceived labor shortage) o Involuntary Punishment or sold by relatives Unwanted, debt, prevent familial starvation o Self-imposed Escape destitution King Ptolemy I (Alexander’s Macedonian General) o Founded Ptolemaic Dynasty that lasted 300 years o Gained Egyptian popular support Restored temples Supported Egyptian priesthood Alexandrian Library (state supported) o Alexandria Most populated Mediterranean city Center of commerce and culture o Goal to obtain copy of all Greek literature Translate foreign literature into Greek Greek Judaism o Hellenized Priests Jerusalem’s wealthiest class Most powerful political Jewish group o Scribes Urban middle class Opposed Hellenism Emphasized oral tradition The Septuagint (“Translation of the 70”) o Earliest existing Greek Torah o Written for Hellenized Jews and Egyptian-Jewish community Greco-Roman Religion o Mystery cults o New religious experiences Exclusiveness Pharaoh Cleopatra (“Father-loving Goddess”-51 BC) o Influenced roman politics Julius Caesar’s lover Marc Antony’s wife o Committed suicide after battle of Actium Secured roman domination Cleopatra’s reputation o Roman opinion Predatory Immoral o Arabian opinion Scholar (1 Ptolemy to learn Egyptian) Scientist, philosopher, chemist o Modern society portrays her as beautiful, but she was never called beautiful but rather smart Romans Timeline o Roman kingdom 753 BC to 509 BC o Roman republic 509 BC to 27 BC o Roman Empire 27 BC to 476 (West) 27 BC to 1453 (East) Pre-Roman Kingdom (Etruscan Civilization) o Homeland Unknown Possibly Turkey o City-states Culturally autonomous o Few written records Think romans destroyed them Contributions to Rome o Gladiatorial games Constantine outlaws o Natural Divination Sacrifice animals and then look inside at the organs to make life decisions Gladiator (“Swordsman”) o Etruscan funerals o Professional combatant Slaves Criminals o Award Palm branches Money Fame Women Early Roman Kingdom (753 BC to 509 BC) o Founding to overthrow of 7 king o Rome had strategic location Defensible from man and floods with mythical origin Patrician and Plebian o Patricians Elite families who controlled legal and religious organizations o Plebians General citizenry o Free, landowning Excluded from most public offices Roman republic (government 509 BC to 27 BC) st o Overthrow of Monarchy to 1 emperor Senate (“The People”) o Preventing corruption Senators banned from banking, shipping industries Mandatory residence No salary Struggle of the orders (Aristocrats vs Commoners) o Cause Plebeians NOT represented o Result Stronger and united Rome Plebeian Tribune Formed 12 Tables (Earliest written Roman law) o NOT a reform o NOT based on religion o Goal Protect against Patrician Abuse Expand legal knowledge Milliarium Aureum (“Golden Milestone”) o Origin of Roman roads All roads o Basis for mile markers o Distance to major cities Appian way o “Queen of the long distance roads”
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