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Date Created: 02/11/16
Study Guide for First Environmental Biology Exam Science as a process 1. What is science? a. Making precise observations of natural phenomena and formulating rationale theories to make sense of those observations 2. Know the difference between discovery and inquiry based science. a. Inquiry based science – derived from their work b. Discovery science – describes nature, from inductive reasoning 3. Steps of scientific method. a. Observations form testable hypothesis collect data (usually involves an experiment) interpret results (if no, form a new testable hypothesis, if yes…) report for peer review publish findings 4. Know what a hypothesis is and what makes it valid. a. A provisional explanation that can be falsified by further investigation b. It has to be testable and proven by multiple experiments 5. What is a theory? a. An explanation that is broad I scope, generates new hypothesis, and is supported by a large body of evidence 6. What is psuedoscience and what are examples of it? a. Provides a framework for distinguishing between what scientific and whats not b. Astrology, numerology, homeopathy, intelligent design, creationism 7. What should you consider when evaluating claims that are supposedly based on science? a. Is it based on science, what are the assumptions, what is the motivation and funding source, is the thinking logical, is there information being left out, does the evidence support the idea 8. What kind of questions are out of the realm of science? a. Questions of religion, ethics, esthetics 9. Definition of Ecology a. Scientific studies of the relationships between organisms or groups of organisms and their environments 10.What are the stages of environmental awareness and who were some of the major people involved? st a. 1 stage: pragmatic utilitarian conservation ... George Perkins Marsh, Aldo Leopold b. 2 stage: Biocentric preservation … Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, Aldo Leopold c. 3 stage: concern about rising pollution … Aldo Leopold, Rachel Cathon d. 4 stage: global concerns and social progress 11.Definition for environmental science and how environmentalism differs from ecology. a. The interdisciplinary study of the complex interactions of humans with living organisms and the nonliving physical environment b. Ecology – science, research, emphasis on nonhumans, inc. knowledge of ecosystems. Environmentalists – many scientists, economy, politics, sociology, preservation and conservation, human activities, influence people to improve quality of environment 12.Evolutionshould be able to define a species and population, and know the steps involved in the evolution in a population a. Species: a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring b. Population: a group of individuals of the same species at the same place and time c. Evolution i. There is variation among individuals in a population ii. More individuals are born than can survive iii. Individuals compete for resources that enable them to survive iv. Some individuals have traits which make them better competitors v. They are more likely to survive and pass their traits onto their offspring Autecology: 13.What are the requirements for life? a. Nutrients b. Energy c. Water d. Gases e. Space, habitat, shelter 14.Define and give examples of autotroph, chemotroph, phototroph, heterotroph, detritivore a. Autotroph get carbon atoms from CO2 in the air i. Plants b. Chemotroph inorganic materials for energy i. Bacteria c. Phototroph – light energy, photosynthesis i. Plant algae d. Heterotroph – get both energy and nutrients from eating food or other organisms i. Animals – bears, wolves, zebras e. Detrivores – eat dead and decomposing materials for energy i. Sea stars, worms 15.How do respiration and photosynthesis affect both oxygen gas and carbon dioxide gas? a. Respiration gives off the carbon dioxide gas and takes in the oxygen gas b. Photosynthesis gives off oxygen gas and takes in carbon dioxide gas 16.Overall diagram of energy sources and gas exchange a. Food molecules ATP and CO2 gas, smaller organic molecules cell molecules b. Sunlight and CO2 ATP energy O2 gas and Food Molecules (refer to A) 17.What are the properties of water? I. A liquid over wide range of temperatures II. A lot of different types of molecules dissolved in H20 III. Cohesive IV. Solid is less dense than liquid V. Hold a lot of heat VI. Takes a lot of energy to turn water from liquid to gas 18.Law of the minimum a. The growth of an organism depends on the amount of resource or environmental factor that is in limiting quality 19.Concept of the ecological niche a. Holistic conceptualization of the ecological properties of an individual or species Population Ecology: 20.Properties of populationsdistribution, density, migration, birth rate, specific birth rate, death rate, specific death rate, survivorship curves (know the 3 types of graphs and typical organisms for each), age structure diagrams (know the 3 types of graphs) a. Distribution: clumped, uniform, random b. Density: population size per area c. Migration: movement of individuals in and out of a population (immigration, emigration, dispersal) d. Birth rate: production of new individuals in the population e. Specific birth rate(b): # born / unit of time / unit of population size f. Death rate: mortality # die/ unit of time g. Specific birth rate(d): #die / unit of time / unit population size h. Survivorship curves: i. Type I: humans, most big mammals ii. Type II birds, reptiles iii. Type III: fish, frogs, weeds, insects, invertebrates i. Age structure diagrams i. Review previous notes 21.Population growth: i. General equation. What is the intrinsic rate of increase (r)? ii. ∆N/∆t = b(N) – d(N) + I – E iii. Intrinsic rate of increase: bd 22.Exponential Curve/Jcurve. Recognize graph. How to birth and death rates change as population grows? Under what conditions would it occur? a. As the population grows, more animals/people are born and less and less people die. b. It would occur with no limiting factors 23.Logistic Growth/Scurve. How does it differ from exponential growth? What is carrying capacity, and environmental resistance? How to birth and death rates change as population grows? Under what conditions would it occur? a. The S curve levels off at the top and does not increase any more, and exponential growth would be with no limiting factors, just increasing nonstop. b. Carrying capacity is the highest population size that can be maintained in an environment c. As the populations grow, less die and more are born d. There are less limiting factors, the growth rate slows down eventually to zero, and then it curves off 24.Density independent and density dependent regulation of population growth. How do they differ and what types of conditions cause them? Know some examples of factors. a. Independent: effect of factor does not change with population density (abiotic) b. Dependent: effect of factor is stranger or affects more individuals as population increases (biotic) c. They differ because dependent relies on the factor while independent it does not affect anything in the situation 25.Know the main types of population interactions and whether they are + or for the populations involved. a. Mutualism + + b. Parasitism + c. Predation + d. Competition Mutualism: 26.Definition. For examples we coved, know how both species benefit. a. An interaction between individuals on a population in which both benefit from the association b. Ex) lichen (algae and fungus) c. Ex) Mycorrhizae fungi and plants i. The plants give food and sugars to the fungi ii. The fungi give the soil nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) to the plant d. Ex) Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria and plants i. Plants give the bacteria food and sugars ii. Bacteria give nitrogen gas from the air and makes it available to the plants e. Ex) Ants and Accacia plants Competition: 27.Definition. What is the difference between intraspecific and interspecific competition? a. An interaction between individuals for populations created by a shared resource in limited supply, which leads to reduction in survival, growth, or reproduction of the competing organisms b. Intraspecific competition logistic growth i. Ex) flour beetles are put into flower filled containers and they check the population growth (the jars get bigger and bigger as they add more flours and beetles) c. Interspecific competition i. 2 outcomes (depends on how they use the shared resource) 1. Coexist 2. One species population goes to 0 (competitive exclusion) 28.How is intraspecific competition related to (cause) logistic growth? a. The population grows then slows, eventually leveling off 29.What is resource partitioning (niche overlap) and how is it related to interspecific competition? a. Resource partitioning is when animals either share their resources or they compete over the resource b. It relates to this because it gives two outcomes when the niche overlaps. Either the animals coexist, or there is competitive exclusion 30.What is the competitive exclusion principle? Why is it important? a. When two species with identical utilization of a limited common resource cannot coexist in the same place at the same time b. Importance: i. Regulates population growth ii. Determines whether species can coexist in a habitat iii. Can act as natural selection force in evolution 31.What is a removal experiment and how does it tell you if competition was occurring between 2 species? a. The removal species is when they remove an animal from a certain environment where there are animals competing for a certain resource b. If the animal spreads out to the new area where their animals were removed, then they were competing. If the animal stays and continues eating the resource they were previously eating without moving over to the removed animal’s resource, then they were not competing 32.Understand the experiments we went over showing competitive exclusion (paramecium and barnacles). 33.How can competition be important in the development of traits and change resource use in populations over evolutionary time? a. They can change to protect themselves in their environments and save themselves from their predator. They adapt to their new environment, growing longer beaks, or shorter beaks. 34.Life History Strategy Know the traits of a K vs r life history strategy. Should be able to say whether a particular type of organism has an r or K strategy a. K is density dependent (old field) b. R is density independent (well used footpath) Predation: 35.What sort of factors help to stabilize pred/prey population cycles? a. Predators that are inefficient or selflimiting b. High prey growth rate c. Refuge for prey d. Predators that switch prey 36.Should understand the experiments on pred/prey cycles we went over. a. Prey pop size increases predator pop size increases prey pop size decreases followed by the predator pop. size decrease continuous cycle 37.What are cryptic and warning color adaptions for prey? a. They are different colorations, usually brightly colored, to show the other animals that they are poisonous and to not eat them. 38.Know definitions and examples for Batesian and Mullerian mimicry. a. Batesian mimicry: which a nonpoisonous organism resembles a poisonous one to avoid predation. Ex) monarch butterflies – viceroy and queen b. Mullerian mimicry: two organisms that are both poisonous resemble each other to avoid predation. Ex) cuckoo and yellow jacket Community Ecology: 39.What is meant by species richness and evenness and how do the affect the diversity of a community? a. Species richness: number of species in the community b. Evenness: how equal the species are in abundance c. If the species richness and evenness increase, the diversity of the community will increase 40.What is character displacement? How is used to see if species have evolved to avoid competition by being selected to divide up resources? How is it related to the Competitive Exclusion Principle? a. Character displacement is changes in a physical trait as a result of natural selection to reduce competition b. They show which animals use which resources and see if the animals, since the change, are still competing over the resource or if the change of the animals to avoid the competition actually worked and they have their own niche to work in then. c. This is related to the competitive exclusion principle because if they do not have anything to compete over, there will be less competitive exclusion and more coexistence between the species 41.How can a predation affect the diversity of a community (predation hypothesis)? Understand the example with the starfish predation diversity in the intertidal community. a. Predation hypothesis – predation lowers prey populations and that reduces competitive exclusion. Predators prevent competition exclusion among prey. b. Starfish eating mussels experiment done to see how the mussels grew without the starfish, by removing the starfish in certain areas and leaving them in their normal place in certain other areas. 42.What are the hypotheses that explain why tropical communities are more diverse than communities in temperate regions? a. Global diversity hypothesis i. Productivity and specialization ii. Area (larger the area, the more species you have) iii. Predator theory (# of predators, more predators reduce competition exclusion) 43.What is ecological succession? What is a pioneer community and a climax community? What is often the causing the species change in the community over time? Understand the study done in Glacier Bay, Alaska. a. Ecological succession is change in a species composition in a community over time b. Pioneer community is the early community c. Climax community is a species that replaces each other d. They moved into a spot that had not been previously occupied by a biological community…. The site was previously occupied by a community but the organisms were removed by disturbance. Ecosystem Ecology 44.What is an ecosystem? a. A community and its physical environment interacting in an exchange of matter and energy 45.What are the laws of thermodynamics? a. 1 law – energy cannot be created or destroyed b. With each transfer of energy some is lost as an unusable form (heat) 46.Why does energy flow and matter cycle in communities? a. Energy cannot be recycled, once it is used it is gone, but matter can be put back in the ground and used again once more. 47.Know the different tropic levels in a food chain. a. Top carnivores b. Carnivores c. Herbivores d. Primary producers 48.What are gross primary productivity, autotrophic respiration and net primary productivity? a. GPP: rate at which energy from sun is stored in organic molecules by plants b. AR: some of that energy goes to plant respiration for their own growth c. NPP: the amount of energy available to producers 49.What generally determines (limits) productivity in terrestrial and in ocean ecosystems? a. Terrestrial – rainfall b. Ocean – limiting nutrients 50.Know the general order of major ecosystems based on primary productivity per unit area (which are hi, which are low) 51.Which major ecosystems contribute most to total global productivity? a. Tropical forest and temperate deciduous forest 52.What is the difference between the grazing chain and the decomposer chain in an ecosystem? a. Grazing chain get their energy from plants, decomposer chain eats the dead organic matter that come from the grazing chain 53.What are possible fates of energy as it is transferred from one trophic level to the next, and about how much energy is left for the next level up? How is this related to energy pyramids? a. The energy becomes less and less, and they lose heat as it transfers up the trophic levels. b. 100 cal/m2/year 10 cal/m2/yr 1 cal /m2/ yr c. This is related to the energy pyramids because they are bigger on the bottom, and they slowly become smaller as you climb up the pyramid to the top, where the energy becomes about very small, such as 1.8 to the primary carnivores and the .1 to the top carnivores. 54.What is a nutrient budget for an ecosystem and how was it measured at Hubbard Brook? a. It is how much energy goes into the ecosystem and how much goes out of the ecosystem b. They measured what comes from the air into the water 55.Which nutrients tend to have a net gain in an ecosystem? a. Nitrogen, phosphorus 56.What happens to tightly cycled nutrients when the vegetation is cut? a. When the vegetation is cut, runoff can happen taking the nutrients into the streams or rivers, away from the animals. Also, the animals will not get the nutrients that they need to have from the plants, since the vegetation has been cut. 57.Know the basics of the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. 58.What human activities have greatly altered the carbon and nitrogen cycles? a. They added fertilizer into the ground, put in new plants that have nitrogen fixing bacteria at the roots of the plants
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