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CDAE 002: Week 4

by: Molly Skrable

CDAE 002: Week 4 CDAE 002

Molly Skrable
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Eras of Development: Gathering/Hunting Societies and Early Agriculture
World Food, Population and Development
Dr. Shoshanah Inwood
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Skrable on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDAE 002 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Shoshanah Inwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see World Food, Population and Development in Human Development at University of Vermont.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
World, Food, Population, and Sustainable Development Week 4 Eras of Development Basic Definitions - Race: group of people who have differences and similarities in biological traits deemed to be socially significant by society - Sex: biological identity as male or female - Gender: social differences based on definition of masculinity and femininity - Ethnicity: shared culture and way of life (language, religion) - Class: education, income and occupation Era 1: Gatherer/Hunter Societies Characteristics - Small bands of people - Low population densities (people/unit of land) - Highly mobile and nomadic - Ecological knowledge - Wide diet (but a few sources of food are disproportionally important) - Few possessions, simple tools - Community interconnectedness - Dominant culture o Individual autonomy o Non-directive child rearing methods § Self-directed play and exploration o Reverse dominance and nonviolence o Sharing and cooperation o Consensual decision making o Equality of individuals - Egalitarian: shared food and land resources o There is no concept of food as a commodity o Land resources are occupied based on use o Redistribution of wealth Indigenous Peoples - Descended from pre-colonial/pre-invasion inhabitants - Close tie to land culturally and economically - Suffer from economic and political marginalization as a minority - Groups are considered Indigenous if they define themselves that way Soil “Don’t treat your soil like dirt!” - Basis for food, feed, medicines, ecosystem services, fuel… - IT’S ALIVE o Organisms don’t just live in the soil, they are a component of it § They alter the appearance of soil as a result of their biochemical and physical processes - One cup of soil holds as many bacteria as there are people o Antibiotics come from soil fungus Era 2: Early Agriculture Before that… what were the other types rather than G/H Societies that were occurring? Food Foraging: oldest type of human adaptation - Residence: requires that people move - Group sizes were kept small - Carrying Capacity (number of people/amount of land) Pastoralism - Relying on raising and managing herds of domesticated migratory animals - AKA “Animal Husbandry”: the care, tending and use of animals such as camels, goats, cattle, yaks, llamas, and sheep - Usually nomadic, moving as needed to provide for the animals Horticulture (Crop Cultivation) - The art or practice of garden cultivation and management - Gardeners working with simple hand tools - Ex) Swidden Farming o Shifting cultivation o Technique of rotational farming in which land is cleared for cultivation (by burning) and then left to regenerate after a few years (Slash and Burn) Now… Agriculture - Practice of farming that includes the cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, and other products - Cultivation that involves using technology other than hand tools o Irrigation, fertilizers - Grows surplus foods rather than providing for only what you need at that time Theories of Emergence - Ratchet Effect o Increased population à increased effort to obtain food à increased guilt à increased effort to intensify local and available food à increased food production - OR: Plants and animals domesticated à Food surplus/storage à Social classes emerge à New Technology à AGRICULTURE 3 Core Areas of Agricultural Development - Mesopotamia - China Other 2: Andes, East US - MesoAmerica 1) Mesopotamia - Sumarians - Began to harvest wild grains, by 6000 BC agriculture was the norm - New technology developed - Irrigation, written language, wheeled carts - Social Stratification became depended upon - Elites, artisans, farmers, armies - Power began to determine wealth - Their effort to maintain surplus failed - Erosion and siltation, waterlogging, salinization - Was harder and harder to grow wheat (best crop), and finally they fell in 2370


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