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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
02112016 Developmental Psychology Continued SingleParent Upbringing 0 201330 of all households were singleparent households 0 Life is sometimes difficult for the single parent Make less money Work longer hours Tend to live farther away from their own parents than married parents less family support Baruth s 10 research based steps of advice for the single parent 0 00000 O 0 Be honest about the situation Assure children that they are not responsible for breakup Be honest about your own feelings Maintain same routine and surroundings Don t try to be both mom and dad With divorce don t encourage children to hope for reconciliation Reassure child that they will continue to be loved and cared for Don t use the child for bargaining power w exspouse Make use of grandparentsrelatives to maintain a sense of family Chapter 6 Sensation and Perception Before 1950 sensations and perceptions were viewed as independent processes 0 sensations were viewed as only the stimuli sounds tastes colors smells etc 0 Perception referred to interpreting the combined stimuli so that it acquired meaning for the person In 1950 James J Gibson argued that this distinction was unnecessary 0 He said that sensation and perception really should be viewed as different parts of the same process Perceptual Systems 0 Structure function and operations by which people perceive their world 0 To fully develop our perceptual systems need to learn and to work with one another 0 A number of studies support this notion o For example Held and Bauer studied the eyehand coordination of two groups of monkeys Control Group raised normally from birth Experimental group raised with large white collars around their neck Six months later when collars were removed the experimental monkeys a First stared at their bodies for extended periods a Showed very poor coordination in visually guided reaching 0 This points to the fact that early experience is critical to the ultimate development of interacting perceptual systems later in life 0 Human studies con ned to case histories of adult cataract removal patients people who gained vision for the rst time as adults While these people have multiple de ciencies one of the primary ones is in visually guided reaching 0 Additional evidence Sensory deprivation studies with newborn kittens n Retinas or lenses never developed while they were completed deprived of light a When deprived of sound the kittens never develop eardrums a When deprived of all sensory experience the kitten s physiological structures do not fully developed 0 Sensory deprivation in humans 1960 s Heron Studies a college students a dull room with air conditioning a plastic visor on eyes a arms and legs covered with tubes n Resu s After 36hrs Complex tasks could not be performed 0 Subjects become irritable and restless twitching o After24hrs Reported seeing cartoon like images not under personal control Became eager for stimulation would sing tap whistle and talk 0 Display random movement 0 Keeping subjects for longer than 48hrs became impossible 0 Conclusion absence of regular sensory stimulation changes the behavior patterns of humans The Human Visual System 0 The perceptual system receiving the most research attention 0 Any perceptual process starts with Stimulus A system that response to that stimulus know eye parts iris lense pupil cornea retina Photoreceptors re when light is received Visual cortex is in the occipital lobe o Transduction process by which the visual system analyzes stimuli light and converts it to electrical signals in the retina so that the visual info can be sent to the brain 0 The retinal cells neurons that begin the process of transduction are called photoreceptors light receivers 2 types of photoreceptors o cones 6million per eye responsible for color vision day vision only aid with ne discrimination o Rods 120 million per eye Responsible primarily for night vision Used for blackwhite contrast form perception Duplicity theory theory that vision is controlled by two and only two classes of photo receptors rods and cones Color vision Properties of color Hue brightness saturation Light wavelength returns Hue Light intensity returns brightness Light complexity returns saturation Hue is the color of an object It is determined by the wavelengths of light that an object re ects Visible light waves range in length from 350nm for blue violent shorter waves to 750nm for red hue longer waves Again hue is produced by the wave lengths of light and an object re ects Process 1 Sunlightarti cial light produces the full spectrum of wavelengths 2 When such light hits a red object the object absorbs all of the wavelengths except those of about 750nm 3 Wavelengths of 750nm are re ected off the object go through the pupil and are interpreted by the retina 4 We see quotredquot Brightness refers to how light or dark a color is It is determined by the intensity strength of the light Saturation refers to the pureness of a color It is determined by the complexity of the re ected light Some objects re ect a saturated pure red ie only 750nm reds bounce off the object Most objects however re ect a mix of wavelengths So the re ected light is more complex producing less saturated colors n For example we may see pink if yellow waves are re ected Color Coding There are 3 different types of cones in our retinas each of which maximally sensitive to certain wavelengths I Some sensitive to short waves I Some sensitive to medium waves I Some sensitive to long waves Known as the YoungHelmholtz theory of color vision 0 The three color groups to which the three cones are sensitive to are 0 Reds long waves 0 Greens medium waves 0 Blues short waves 0 The speci c combination of ring of the three types of cones 0 An alternate theory of color vision was proposed later by Hering o quotOpponentProcess Theoryquot Hering also argues that we have three different types of cones but He proposed that color is coded in a different way ie he produced evidence showing that cones have both negative and positive charges a Argued that there are Redgreen blueyellow and blackwhite cones After decades of research it was nally concluded that the YoungHelmholtz theory best explains color coding at the retinal level
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