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Chapter 12 Notes

by: Caroline Picciolo

Chapter 12 Notes BSC 1010C

Caroline Picciolo

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These notes cover chapter 12
General Biology
Professor Palmtag
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Picciolo on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1010C at Florida Gulf Coast University taught by Professor Palmtag in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Florida Gulf Coast University.

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Date Created: 02/11/16
Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle  Cell division of one cell results in two genetically identical daughter cells  The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle  The eukaryotic cell is regulated by a molecular control system  Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells o Defining properties of living organisms  Cell cycle  Cell division o Unicellular organisms  Some organisms reproduce exclusively by mitotic cell division o Asexual reproduction o Offspring are clones  Deuteromycetes  Athlete’s foot  Yeast infections  Penecillium notatum  Brie  Multicellular organisms depend on cell division o Development o Growth o Renewal o Repair o Asexual reproduction o Sexual reproduction  Production of gametes  Two daughter cells are produced through cell division of one parent cell o Daughters are genetically identical  Genome  Prokaryotes o Single DNA molecule, ring or linear  Genome o Eukaryotes  Pairs of linear DNA molecules  Chromosomes o Homologous pairs  Genes  Alleles  Somatic cells (mitosis)  Somatic cells divide through mitosis and produce identical cells  Gametocytes  Produce gametes (meiosis)  One diploid cell divides into two identical diploid cells  Anatomy of a chromosome o Duplicated chromosome Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle  Two sister chromatids (One sister chromatid=one chromosome after separation)  Cohesins  Centromere  Arm  Mitosis o Replication of the nucleus  Cytokinesis o The division of the cytoplasm  The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle o Cell cycle  Interphase  The cell is performing its duty for the organism  G1 phase  Initial growth phase  S phase  DNA replication  G2 phase  Second growth phase  “Checklist phase” Making sure it’s ready to divide  Mitotic phase o Resting phase G0  The Mitotic phase o G 2f Interphase  Nucleus is bound  Chromosomes have been duplicated  Cytoskeleton disassembles  Mitotic spindle begins to organize  Centrosome duplicates (MTOC)  *Centrioles form o Spatial arrangement  Nucleus  Organelles o Prophase (Early prophase)  Chromosomes condense  6 duplicated chromosomes o Nucleoli become undetectable Prophase= early o Mitotic spindle develops prophase  Centrosomes migrate Prometaphase= late prophase o Prometaphase (Late prophase)  Nuclear envelope fragments Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle  Kinetochores  Microtubules  Connect to kinetochores  Interact with non-kinetochore microtubules o Metaphase  Centrosomes complete migration  Metaphase plate o Anaphase  Cohesions are cleaved  Each sister chromatid of a duplicated chromosome becomes an independent chromosome  Chromosomes migrate  Cell elongates  Non-kinetochore microtubules elongate o Telophase  Nuclei form (mitosis complete)  Chromosomes extend/ relax  Mitosis completes o Cytokinesis in animal cells  Cleavage  Cleavage furrow o Cytokinesis in plant cells  Formed through vesicular transport  Cell plate o Cell division in prokaryotes  Binary fission  Prokaryote binary fission is not mitosis?  Movement of origins of replication  Cell increases in size  Cell membrane grows toward itself and fuses  The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system o “Timing is everything” o Varies among cell types  Keratinocytes  Liver cells  Nervous system cells, muscle cells  What controls the cell cycle? o Cytoplasmic signals o Evidence  How are cytoplasmic signals coordinated? o Cell cycle control system  Checkpoints Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle  Quality control mechanisms, make sure that cells are properly preparing to divide  G1 checkpoint o Restriction point  What are the cytoplasmic signals that control the cell cycle? o Kinase, phosphorylating enzyme o Cyclin, cofactor  Internal and external signals o Internal (M –checkpoint)  Anaphase  Attachment of kinetochores to spindles  Cohesin cleavage o External  Nutrient limitation  Growth factor  Anchorage dependence  Density Dependence  Cancer, loss of cell cycle control o Mutations  Abnormal signaling pathways  Deranged cell cycle  “Immortal cells”  Transformation o Evasion of immune system o Play by their own rules o Telomerase activity  Benign tumor  Malignant tumor  Metastasis


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