PSYC 2010- Chapter 6 Notes (not knowledge checklist)
PSYC 2010- Chapter 6 Notes (not knowledge checklist) Psyc 2010-003
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Chapter 6 Conditioning and Learning • Learning is a relatively durable or even permanent change in knowledge or behavior that is due to experience • John Locke-‐ o Infants are born as “Tabula Rasa” or blank paper. There is no knowledge present at birth o Learning has to be filled out on this “blank paper” • Formal training-‐ 8-‐12 years of school in most cultures, some cultures it is 16-‐ 24 years o Informal learning is a lifelong thing-‐ even fears are learned • Primitive species are born basically knowing everything that they need to know-‐ humans aren’t • Babies are born only afraid of loud noises and falling • The amount that humans learn in their lifetime is one of the miracles of human existence Different Types of Learning: • Habituation and Adaptation o Learn to ignore the unimportant stuff going on around you o We’re constantly exposed to thousands of stimuli at any given time o 99.9% of stimuli are not important to us o Most basic types of learning • Habituation o Decrease in 2 behavioral responses with repeated exposure o Orienting response-‐ turning your sense organs such as your eyes, ears and nose to maximize information about a new stimulus o Example-‐ someone coming into a room and eventually people will stop looking at the door o Startle response-‐ occurs to more intense stimuli, reflects surprise or even fear, even this begins to habituate o People can habituate to parties, vehicles, and fights o Without this any other type of learning would be impossible o Some things are hard to habituate to-‐ jets taking off, unpredictable things, or stimuli at night. Barking dogs!!!! • Adaptation o Becoming less sensitive to a stimulus because it is repetitive-‐ our sense organs do this o Example-‐ sunglasses, after shave/perfume, feel of shoes/clothing, smell of a closed barn o Without this any other learning would also be impossible • Classical Conditioning o Pavlov-‐ Pavlov’s dogs § Meat + bell = salivate § The meat is unconditional, the bell is neutral (conditioned) § Unconditioned stimulus produces a response without having training § Conditioned stimulus produces a response after having training § Eventually the bell makes the dog salivate alone § If you have a pet then you have actually duplicated this study o Stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus o Twitmeyer-‐ patellar reflex § He actually did this before Pavlov did anything o Human emotions are classically conditioned o Fears can develop in this way-‐ the unconditioned stimulus would be a shot and the conditioned stimulus would be the syringe used to give the shot o Fetishes develop in this way-‐ a fetish is an unusually strong attraction to something other than the person o Advertisers use sex and classical conditioning to see products § Conditioned stimulus-‐ products § Unconditioned stimulus-‐ sexual imagery o John B. Watson demonstrated how strong classical conditioning can be § Little Albert study-‐ he was the first victim of artificially conditioned neurosis. In a lab he would play with a white rat (completely harmless and calm), someone would come up behind him and sound a loud gong. The noise would scare Little Albert and he eventually became scared of the white rat, even though it was harmless. He eventually became scared of other white things (horses, dogs, Santa beards). This is known as stimulus generalization. § Presenting the conditioned stimulus repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus can eliminate this response. Gradually the response will go away. Spontaneous recovery is when there is not further conditioning, you just have the passage of time. Time passes, and the conditioned stimulus alone comes back and you feel the same response as before again. Eventually all of this will go away.
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