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PSYC 2010- Chapter 6 Notes (not knowledge checklist)

by: Morgan Dimery

PSYC 2010- Chapter 6 Notes (not knowledge checklist) Psyc 2010-003

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > Psyc 2010-003 > PSYC 2010 Chapter 6 Notes not knowledge checklist
Morgan Dimery

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About this Document

These notes cover the stuff we went over in class this week. Since the knowledge checklist won't be posted until this weekend, I had to just post some generic notes because I'm required to post onc...
Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G. Brainerd
Class Notes
PSYC, Psychology
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Chapter  6   Conditioning  and  Learning     • Learning  is  a  relatively  durable  or  even  permanent  change  in  knowledge  or   behavior  that  is  due  to  experience   • John  Locke-­‐   o Infants  are  born  as  “Tabula  Rasa”  or  blank  paper.  There  is  no   knowledge  present  at  birth   o Learning  has  to  be  filled  out  on  this  “blank  paper”   • Formal  training-­‐  8-­‐12  years  of  school  in  most  cultures,  some  cultures  it  is  16-­‐ 24  years   o Informal  learning  is  a  lifelong  thing-­‐  even  fears  are  learned   • Primitive  species  are  born  basically  knowing  everything  that  they  need  to   know-­‐  humans  aren’t   • Babies  are  born  only  afraid  of  loud  noises  and  falling   • The  amount  that  humans  learn  in  their  lifetime  is  one  of  the  miracles  of   human  existence     Different  Types  of  Learning:   • Habituation  and  Adaptation   o Learn  to  ignore  the  unimportant  stuff  going  on  around  you   o We’re  constantly  exposed  to  thousands  of  stimuli  at  any  given  time   o 99.9%  of  stimuli  are  not  important  to  us   o Most  basic  types  of  learning   • Habituation   o Decrease  in  2  behavioral  responses  with  repeated  exposure       o Orienting  response-­‐  turning  your  sense  organs  such  as  your  eyes,  ears   and  nose  to  maximize  information  about  a  new  stimulus   o Example-­‐  someone  coming  into  a  room  and  eventually  people  will   stop  looking  at  the  door   o Startle  response-­‐  occurs  to  more  intense  stimuli,  reflects  surprise  or   even  fear,  even  this  begins  to  habituate   o People  can  habituate  to  parties,  vehicles,  and  fights   o Without  this  any  other  type  of  learning  would  be  impossible   o Some  things  are  hard  to  habituate  to-­‐  jets  taking  off,  unpredictable   things,  or  stimuli  at  night.  Barking  dogs!!!!   • Adaptation   o Becoming  less  sensitive  to  a  stimulus  because  it  is  repetitive-­‐  our   sense  organs  do  this   o Example-­‐  sunglasses,  after  shave/perfume,  feel  of  shoes/clothing,   smell  of  a  closed  barn   o Without  this  any  other  learning  would  also  be  impossible   • Classical  Conditioning   o Pavlov-­‐  Pavlov’s  dogs   § Meat  +  bell  =  salivate   § The  meat  is  unconditional,  the  bell  is  neutral  (conditioned)   § Unconditioned  stimulus  produces  a  response  without  having   training   § Conditioned  stimulus  produces  a  response  after  having   training   § Eventually  the  bell  makes  the  dog  salivate  alone   § If  you  have  a  pet  then  you  have  actually  duplicated  this  study   o Stimulus  acquires  the  ability  to  evoke  a  response  that  was  originally   evoked  by  another  stimulus   o Twitmeyer-­‐  patellar  reflex   § He  actually  did  this  before  Pavlov  did  anything   o Human  emotions  are  classically  conditioned   o Fears  can  develop  in  this  way-­‐  the  unconditioned  stimulus  would  be  a   shot  and  the  conditioned  stimulus  would  be  the  syringe  used  to  give   the  shot   o Fetishes  develop  in  this  way-­‐  a  fetish  is  an  unusually  strong  attraction   to  something  other  than  the  person   o Advertisers  use  sex  and  classical  conditioning  to  see  products   § Conditioned  stimulus-­‐  products   § Unconditioned  stimulus-­‐  sexual  imagery     o John  B.  Watson  demonstrated  how  strong  classical  conditioning  can   be   § Little  Albert  study-­‐  he  was  the  first  victim  of  artificially   conditioned  neurosis.  In  a  lab  he  would  play  with  a  white  rat   (completely  harmless  and  calm),  someone  would  come  up   behind  him  and  sound  a  loud  gong.  The  noise  would  scare   Little  Albert  and  he  eventually  became  scared  of  the  white  rat,   even  though  it  was  harmless.  He  eventually  became  scared  of   other  white  things  (horses,  dogs,  Santa  beards).  This  is  known   as  stimulus  generalization.   § Presenting  the  conditioned  stimulus  repeatedly  without  the   unconditioned  stimulus  can  eliminate  this  response.  Gradually   the  response  will  go  away.  Spontaneous  recovery  is  when  there   is  not  further  conditioning,  you  just  have  the  passage  of  time.   Time  passes,  and  the  conditioned  stimulus  alone  comes  back   and  you  feel  the  same  response  as  before  again.  Eventually  all   of  this  will  go  away.        


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