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Chapter 13 Notes

by: Caroline Picciolo

Chapter 13 Notes BSC 1010C

Caroline Picciolo

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These notes cover chapter 13
General Biology
Professor Palmtag
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Picciolo on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1010C at Florida Gulf Coast University taught by Professor Palmtag in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Florida Gulf Coast University.

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Date Created: 02/11/16
Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycle  A defining property of life; the ability to reproduce o Offspring inherit genes on chromosomes from parents o Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid o Genetic variation drives evolution o “Genetic recombination”  Many organisms reproduce through both asexual and sexual reproduction  Many organisms naturally reproduce exclusively through sexual reproduction o Meiosis  Modified form of cell division  Parents each contribute 50% of their DNA to offspring o Genetics  The study of heredity and hereditary variation  Where does meiosis occur, what are the products? (2n=diploid/n=haploid) o Gonads o Gametogenesis-production of sperm or egg  Germ cells, mitosis (2n  2n)  Gametocytes, meiosis (2n  n)  Gametes (n)  Sperm (n)  Egg (n)  What accounts for the genetic variation associated with heredity in the context of sexual reproduction? o Meiosis  Divides the genome from diploid to haploid  Set of homologous chromosomes o Locus (address of a gene/location)  Gene  Allele  Sets of chromosomes in human somatic cells (not sperm and egg) o Karyotype o Somatic cell-everything but sperm and egg  44 autosomes, 2 sex chromosomes  46 chromosomes, 23 homologous pairs o Homologous chromosomes  Autosomes- all chromosomes except for sex chromosomes  Sex chromosomes  XX or XY  Mitotic division o 1 diploid divides into 2 identical diploids o Diploid cell  2n  Human: 2n = 46  Meiotic division o 1 diploid divides into 4 haploids (non-identical) Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycle o Haploid cell  n  Human: n = 23 o 1 round splits apart homologous pairs, 2 ndround splits apart replicated chromosomes  Meiosis I o Prophase I  Chromosomes condense  Nuclear envelope fragments  Homologous chromosomes pair (Tetrads)  Microtubules migrate to attach to duplicated chromosomes  Homologs enter synapsis  Synaptonemal complex  Genetic recombination  Crossing over o Chiasma o Recombinant Chromosomes o Metaphase I  Micotubules arrange homologs at metaphase plate o Anaphase I  Enzymes cleave synaptomenal complex  Homologs migrate to poles of cell  Starts to become haploid o Telophase I  Two daughter cells, each contains a haploid set of replicated chromosomes o Cytokinesis  Nuclear envelope may or may not form (depends on type of cell) o Prophase II  Spindle microtubules reform  Microtubules reattach  Move duplicated chromosome toward metaphase plate o Metaphase II  Chromosomes are arranged on the metaphase plate  Each sister chromatid of a chromosome is not identical to the other o Anaphase II  Sister chromatids separate  Each are now a chromosome o Telophase II and cytokinesis  Four haploid gametes are formed Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycle  The variety of sexual life cycles o Alternation of generations  Meiosis produces spores  Mitosis produces gametes  Sporophyte (2n)  Spores (n) / Gametophyte (n)  Variety of sexual life cycles o Animal  No gametophyte  Gametes produced by meiosis  Genetic variation produced in sexual life cycles contributes to evolution o Independent assortment of chromosomes  Random fertilization 23 o Each gamete represents 2 possible chromosome combinations (8.4 million) o Fertilization represents 223x 223possible combinations (70 trillion) o Crossing over  Results in much larger number of possibilities Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycle  Evolutionary significance of genetic variation within populations o Populations evolve through differential reproductive success  Recombination due to independent assortment and crossing over result in recombinants  Recombinants may have traits that are favored in a changing environment  Advantage of sexual reproduction o Sexual reproduction increases genetic variation  Increases the rate at which populations can adapt to changing environmental conditions


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