Book Chapter 1 Notes
Book Chapter 1 Notes 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Schill on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Jeff Erger in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Chapter 1 Notes I) The Sociological Perspective A) Sociology 1) The systematic study of human society B) Society 1) People who live in a defined territory and share a way of life C) Seeing the General in the Particular 1) Sociological perspective (a)Sociology’s special point of view that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people D) Seeing the Strange in the Familiar 1) There is the strange idea that society shapes what we think and do E) Seeing Society in Our Everyday Lives 1) Taking a look at suicide rates” (a)Categories of people with strong social ties had low suicide rates (b)More individualistic categories of people had high suicide rates 2) Freedom can come with a price F) Seeing Sociologically: Marginality and Crisis 1) Periods of change or crisis make everyone feel a little off balance 2) Social change can trigger sociological thinking and vice versa II) The Importance of a Global Perspective A) Global perspective 1) The study of the larger world and our society’s place in it B) High- income countries 1) Nations with the highest overall standards of living C) Middle- income countries 1) Nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole D) Low- income countries 1) Nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor E) Makes comparisons between the United States and other nations because: 1) Where we live shapes the lives we lead 2) Societies throughout the world are increasingly interconnected 3) What happens in the rest of the world affects life here in the United States 4) Many social problems that we face in the United States are far more serious elsewhere 5) Thinking Globally helps us learn more about ourselves III) Applying the Sociological Perspective A) Sociology and Public Policy 1) Sociologists have helped shape public policy- the laws and regulations that guide how people in communities live and work- in countless ways B) Sociology and Personal Growth 1) Using sociology benefits us in four ways (a)The sociological perspective helps us assess the truth of “common sense” (b)The sociological perspective helps us see the opportunities and constraints in our lives (c)The sociological perspective empowers us to be active participants in our society (d)The sociological perspective helps us live in a diverse world C) Careers “the Sociology Advantage” 1) Many careers in a sociology degree 2) Agencies will hire sociologists 3) Police departments, etc. 4) Health care, etc. IV)The Origins of Sociology A) Social Change and Sociology 1) A New Industrial Economy (a)Had to work in factories, weakening the traditions that used to take place in the homes (manufacturing) 2) The Growth of Cities (a)Farmers were forced to move to big cities due to enclosure movement 3) Political Change (a)Philosophers spoke of personal liberty and individual rights 4) A New Awareness of Society (a)Made more people much more aware of their surroundings B) Science and Sociology 1) Auguste Comte saw sociology as the product of a three-stage historical development (a)Theological Stage (i) The church in the Middle Ages (ii)From beginning o human history to the end of the European Middle Ages about 1350 A.D. (iii) People took a religious view that society expressed God’s will (b)Metaphysical Stage (i) The Enlightenment and the ideas of Hobbes, Locke, and Rosseau (ii)People saw society as a natural rather than a supernatural system (iii) For example, Hobbes suggested that society reflected not the perfection of God so much as the failings of a selfish human nature (c)Scientific Stage (i) Modern physics, chemistry, sociology (ii)Applying the scientific approach (d)To illustrate the stages: (i) Ancient Greeks saw planets as gods (ii)Metaphysical thinkers saw them as astral influences (iii) By Galileo, understood planets as natural objects and which are moving by natural laws 2) Positivism (a)A scientific approach to knowledge based on “positive” facts as opposed to mere speculation; Comte’s approach name V) Sociological Theory A) Theory 1) A statement of how and why specific facts are related B) Theoretical approach 1) A basic image of society that guides thinking and research 2) Three Major Theoretical Approaches (a)Structural-functional approaches (b)Social-conflict approaches (c)Symbolic-interaction approach C) The Structural-Functional Approach 1) Structural-functional approach (a)Framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability 2) Social structure (a)Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior 3) Social functions (a)The consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole 4) Manifest functions (a)The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern 5) Latent functions (a)The unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern 6) Social dysfunction (a)Any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society D) The Social-Conflict Approach 1) Social-conflict approach (a)A framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change E) Feminism and Gender- Conflict Theory 1) Gender-conflict theory (feminist theory) (a)The study of society that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and men 2) Feminism (a)Support of social equality for women and men F) The Symbolic-Interaction Approach 1) Macro-level orientation (a)A broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole (b)Social-conflict and structural-functional (c)Looks at society in the big picture rather than smaller 2) Micro-level orientation (a)A close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations 3) Symbolic-interaction approach (a)A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals VI)Applying the Approaches: The Sociology of Sports A) The Functions of Sports 1) Structural-Functional Approach (a)Manifest Functions (i) Providing recreation (ii)Means of getting in physical shape (b)Latent Functions (i) Builds social relationships (ii)Creating jobs (c)Dysfunctional Consequences (i) College try to field winning teams but can recruit only for athletic skill and not academic B) Sports and Conflict 1) Social-Conflict Approach (a)The games people play reflect their social standing 2) Gender-Conflict Approach (a)Most sports are dominated by men 3) Race-Conflict Approach (a)The majority of football, basketball, and baseball players are black C) Sports as Interaction 1) Symbolic-Interaction Approach (a)Many players see many parts of the game in different ways
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