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Chapter 16 Notes

by: Caroline Picciolo

Chapter 16 Notes BSC 1010C

Caroline Picciolo

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These notes cover chapter 16
General Biology
Professor Palmtag
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Picciolo on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1010C at Florida Gulf Coast University taught by Professor Palmtag in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Florida Gulf Coast University.

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Date Created: 02/11/16
Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance  Nucleic acids o Nucleoside triphosphates o Nucleotides (nucleoside + phosphate)  Sugar  Phosphate  Nitrogenous base  Purines (A,G) o Two rings  Pyrimidines (C, T) o One ring o Polynucleotides/Nucleic acids  Phosphodiester bonds  DNA and RNA o DNA antiparallel arrangement  5’  3’  3’  5’  Cells arise from pre-existing cells o Cell division, mitosis  One cell duplicates and divides into two cells  The big question in the early 1900’s o Which macromolecules compose the genetic material?  Chromosome  Chromosome composition o Chromatin  DNA? Or  Protein?  Evidence that “some molecules” can transform bacteria o A. Griffith (1920’s), Streptococcus pneumoniae  One organism was sharing genetic information with an individual.   Evidence that viral DNA can program cells o B. Virus life cycle, bacteriophages (phages) B A . . Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance  Hershey and Chase. 1952 o T2 phage and Escherichia coli o This is the experiment that first suggested that DNA was the genetic material and not protein. o It was received with skepticism.  Additional evidence that DNA is the genetic material o Base composition of DNA varies among species o Chargaff’s rule  Building a structural model of DNA o What is the three dimensional molecular structure of DNA?  Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin, 1950’s  X-ray crystallography o Double helix o Helices have a uniform diameter  DNA replication o DNA is a pair of templates complementary to each other o Upon replication do the new template strands remain with their parent strands?  Meselson and Stahl, 1958 o Semiconservative model  E. coli can replicate in 20 minutes  DNA replication o Origin of replication o Direction of replication o Replication fork o Helicase o Single-strand binding proteins o Topoisomerase-prevents bonding o Primase o Primer o Okazaki fragments Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance o DNA Polymerase, III, I o DNA ligase  DNA replication o Origin of replication o Direction of replication o Replication fork o Helicases o Single-strand binding proteins o Topoisomerase o Primase o Primer o DNA Polymerase, III, I- 3 copies DNA, 1 removes RNA and replaces it with DNA o Leading strand o Lagging strand o Okazaki fragments o Ligase  Replicating the ends of linear DNA molecules o Telomeres  TTAGGG o Telomerase  Proof reading and repairing DNA o One mistake per 100,000 bases  Some are caused by mismatches  Some are caused by DNA damage  Corrected by DNA polymerases o Nuclease


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