Popular in Religion 1000
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Religion
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Kaufman on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Rel 1000 at a university taught by Professor Riggs in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Religion 1000 Tuesdays and Thursdays 23:40 Hinduism Part 1 South Asian religion o Islam o Sikhism o Buddhism o Etc. India region = South Asian region, not Indonesian. Indonesian region = Southeast Asian region o Afghanistan o Bangladesh o India o Iran o Maldives o Nepal o Pakistan o Sri lanka o Bhutan o Burhma South Asia has largest concentration of Hindus and Muslims o 1 billion Hindus worldwide o 80% of population in India Roots are not indigenous to South Asia, nor is the name “Hindu” o “Sindhu”: Sanskrit for “large body of water” (specifically, the Indus river) o “Hindu”: Persian pronunciation of “Sindhu” (C. 550300 BCE) o “Indus”: Greek pronunciation of “Sindhu” (C. 336323 BCE) Greek historian around 440 BCE refers to the land of Indus as “India” o Arabic pronunciation is “AlHind” th 19 Century was when people starting using the world “Hindu” to describe believers of a particular religion Hinduism comes from: o Indus Valley Civilization (33001900 BCE) o Indo European Peoples Hierarchal society Organized city Agrarian economy Bronze age technology Uniform bricks Interregional trade with Sumer to the west Maintained civic organization/uformity not seen again until the common era No definite knowledge about their religion, their language, their ethnicity, and their script was undecipherable Ended C. 1900 BCE but we have no idea why (options include flood, famine, war, environmental, influx of money) Religion 1000 Tuesdays and Thursdays 2-3:40 Hinduism Part 2 Indo-European Peoples: o “Indo”: and adjective for India o “European”: people from Europe o Not a racial category but a linguistic category o Nomadic pastoral society o Oral poetry and rituals o Shamanic/priestly class to officiate rituals and sacrifices o Domesticated horse, cattle, and dogs o Peripatetic technology (chariots and wagons) o From Central Asian steppes (great pastureland) o No archaeological record o We know they are from outside of South Asia o Don’t know why they came here o Have a detailed account of their religious practices o Language=primary means for transmission and representation of culture Shapes how we understand the world Complex system to interpret human understanding Represent human centered knowledge How did they arrive in South Asia? o Chariots o Horses o On foot o Did they invade? Popular way to expand territory Had the means and technology to do so o Did they immigrate? Waves of gradual immigration Large population shifts in ancient world o Settled in Panjab (Land of Seven Rivers, Sapt Sindhu) Indo-Euro languages: o English o Greek o Celtic o Indic o Baltic o German o Slavic o Iranian o Albanian o Armenian o Romance Indo-Arayans: o “Arya”: noble ones (how they referred to themselves) o Not racial category, but a title o Hierarchical society o Domesticated animals (horses were their favorite) o Religion of gods connected with natural elements Rituals Sacrifice Special priests and language Sanskrit: o Definition: put together, well formed o Dead language o Classical language o Primary language for the Hinduism rituals and sacrifices o Scholarly language of Jainism, Buddhism, and later Hinduism o Not written down until 100 BCE o Not an everyday language Vedas (1500 BCE) maintained orally during this time o Related to Greek, Latin, English, etc. Sanskrit in ritual: o Precise pronunciation is a must o Vedic Sanskrit of ritual language not indexical (sound of verse or chant embodies what it says) o To interact with the gods o Language guides the ritual and sacrifices Verdic period (roughly 1200-1600 BCE) Vedas: o Some of the oldest religious texts (body of knowledge, in this case not written) in the world o Guides for sacrifices and rituals o Definition: hyms to praise gods o Passed from one another (this is called parma-para) o Considered shruti (sacredly heard) First heard by the rishis (sages who communicate with the gods to compose visions and knowledge of sacrifice) Four Vedas: o Rig-Veda First Veda Oldest Veda Hyms o Sam-Veda Second Veda Directions on how to sing the hyms o Arthava-Veda Third Veda Detailed version of the first veda o Vajur-Veda How to officiate Fifth Veda: o Epic stories about India’s mythical past o Mahakharat o Ramayan Proto-Hindu religious thoughts: o Changing role of different gods tied with nature o Importance of tirual o Practical aspects of sacrifice o Social structure Old gods or new? o Indra=lightning o Agni=fire (important god, god of sacrifice, messenger god to all the other gods, priest of the gods) o Sama=psychedelic plant o Voyu=wind o Ashvin Twins=horse headed twins o Varuna=water o Ushas=down o No images of gods-represented in poetry Importance of ritual: o Balances of nature and man in check o Instrumental (specific) o Produces bandhu (knot) to people and gods o Material aspect (we got what we want) Practical Guide to sacrifice: o Vedic religion was portable o Memorized o No temples o Roles of each person and who is doing what What do the gods eat? o Livestock o Dogs o Ghi o Grain Who cuts the meat and how? o Distribution o Cutting o Living body microcosm of universe o Entrails When and where? o Precise measurement for alters o Events in elite’s lifespan Elements? o Fire=ghi o Water=bathing o Water=carried stuff to gods o Earth=purified
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