LIN3041 -- Intro to Linguistics -- Week 6 Notes
LIN3041 -- Intro to Linguistics -- Week 6 Notes LIN3041
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Isgar on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIN3041 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Gretchen Sunderman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
LIN3041 – Intro to Linguistics – 2/9&2/11 Tuesday, February 9 th Chapter 4 -- Morphology Definitions: Lexicon o My definition -- your mental dictionary, where vocabulary is Definition -- a speaker's mental dictionary which contain information about the syntactic properties, meaning an phonological representation of a language's words Word o My definition -- smallest unit that can stand alone Definition -- the smallest free form found in any language Free form o My definition -- smallest unit that can't stand alone Definition -- an element that can occur in isolation and/or whose position with respect to neighboring elements is not entirely fixed o Dinosaurs are extinct. Dinosaur are -s extinct. -s would be a free form Morpheme o My definition -- variations of the same root Definition -- the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function. o Books has two morphemes book and -s Simple/complex word o Simple/My definition -- words that don't have an affix added to them Definition -- A word that consists of a simple morpheme (horse) o Complex/My definition -- words that have affixes added to form other meanings Definition -- A word that contains two or more morphemes (unemployment) o Free/bound morpheme o Free/My definition -- morphemes that can stand alone Definition -- A morpheme that can be a word by itself (fear) o Bound/My definition -- morphemes that can't stand alone Definition -- A morpheme that must be attached to another element (the past tense marker -ed) o Allomorph o My definition -- variation of a morpheme o Definition -- variant form of a morpheme a/an --> allomorphs for the article a Cats/dogs/judges Analyzing word structure Complex words contain a root morpheme and one or more affixes Root morphemes belong to a lexical category Affixes do not belong to a lexical category and are always bound morphemes LIN3041 – Intro to Linguistics – 2/9&2/11 Affixation Prefix -- attached to the front of the base Suffix -- attached to the back of the base Infix -- occurs within the base Infixes in Arabic: Katab 'write' Kutib 'have been writing' Aktub 'be writing' Uktab 'being written' Infixes in English? Fantastic --> Fan-fricken-tastic Cinderella --> Cinde-fricken-rella o We can infix but really only swear words (with the F word) "certain expletive in colloquial expressions" Not random --- expletive precedes main stress of word Analyzing word structure Trees: A base is the form to which an affix is added: in many cases it is the root - but not always English morphology is word-based (the majority of complex words in English are built from roots that are free morphemes) o Some exceptions (unkempt, receive, permit, etc.) Derivation Affixational process that forms a word with a meaning and/or category distinct from that of its base Derived words are independent lexical items that receive their own entry in a speaker's mental dictionary Writer: o Verb base 'write' o + suffix 'er' [one who does X] o Resulting Noun writer Complex Derivation Unhappiness must be treed a certain way: The suffix –ness can only be added to an adjective Constraints on Derivation Assistant but not helpant LIN3041 – Intro to Linguistics – 2/9&2/11 o Some things are Greek and others are Latin, you can't mix a Greek root with a Latin prefix or vice versa Whiten but not bluen o -en can't be added to another vowel Prettier but not funner o Pretty is an adjective, fun is a noun You can't put the comparative on a noun Two classes of derivational affixes Class 1: triggers change in consonant or vowel segments of the base and may affect stress placement Class 2: phonologically neutral Class 2 usually cannot intervene between the root and a Class 1 affix Thursday, February 11 th Compounding The combination of two already existent words Resulting compound word is a noun, verb, or adjective Rightmost category determines the category of the word (head) Heads? o Bluebird Bird -- N o Underestimate Estimate -- V o Red hot Hot -- A o Greenhouse House -- N Properties of compounds Adjectives + Noun compounds more prominent stress on first component o Greénhouse vs. green hoúse o Wét suit vs. wet suít Tense and plural markets cannot typically be attached to the first element o Drop kick the ball Drop kicked the ball Dropped kick the ball Endocentric compounds Compound denoting a subtype of the concept denoted by its head o Fire truck o Dog food o Bath towel Exocentric compounds The meaning of the compound does not follow from the head o Redhead LIN3041 – Intro to Linguistics – 2/9&2/11 o Redneck Compounds in other languages Incorporation: the combination of a word (usually a noun) with a verb to form a compound verb o English -- babysitting, housecleaning Inflection The modification of a word's form (through affixation, internal change, reduplication, or suppletion) to indicate the grammatical subclass to which it belongs Inflection in English o Plural -s o Possessive 's o 3 person singular non-past -s o Progressive -ing o Past tense -ed o Past participle -en/ed o Comparative -er o Superlative -est Inflection vs. Derivation Category change o Inflection does NOT change category or type of meaning Order o Derivation before inflection Productivity o Inflectional has more freedom How inflection is marked Internal change o Substitute one nonmorphemic segment for another to mark a grammatical contrast Sing/sang Goose/geese Suppletion o Morphological process that replaces a morpheme with an entirely different morpheme in order to indicate a grammatical contrast Ir - fue Reduplication o Marking a grammatical or semantic contrast by repeating all or part of the base it which it applies Full -- gyzel ----> gyzel gyzel Partial -- lakad ----> lalakad Stress and tone placement o Présent vs. presént o Da(high tone) spanked / da (low tone) will spank LIN3041 – Intro to Linguistics – 2/9&2/11 Other inflectional phenomena Case o Change in word's form to indicate its grammatical role (subject, DO, etc.) Agreement o Word is inflected to match certain inflectional properties of another word Other types of word formation Cliticization o Clitics are those elements that must be attached to a host. ['m, 's] o Clitics are members of lexical category (verb, noun, pronouns, prepositions) [different from a typical affix] o Enclitics o Proclitics Conversion o Assign an already existing word to a new syntactic category Butter - V derived from N Zero derivation Clipping o Shorten a polysyllabic word (prof, phys ed) Most commonly occurs in names Blends o Words created from non-morphemic parts of two already existing items Brunch = breakfast + lunch Liger = lion + tiger Backformation o Create new words by removing a real or supposed affix from another word in the language Donate -- from donation Orient -- from orientation Edit -- from editor Acronyms o Words formed by taking the initial letters of the words in a phrase and pronouncing them as a word (UNICEF, AIDS, NAFTA) Onomatopoeia o Words created to sound like the thing that they name Cock-a-doodle-doo Coinage (word manufacture) o Words created from scratch Kodak o Brand names accepted as generic names Kleenex o Eponyms LIN3041 – Intro to Linguistics – 2/9&2/11 Words that are coined from a person's name James Watt -- Watt
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